Benedict history - corroboration of the Simonides account and the David W. Daniels research

Steven Avery

Full English translation text below except short Greek section

PHOTO: Symi during the Greek Revolution -
By Nikolos Farmakidis - Νικολού Φαρμακίδηφωτο-η-σύμη-κατά-την-ελληνική-επανάσταση-του-νικολού-φαρμακίδηεπέτειος-200-ετών-από-την-κήρυξη-της-επανάστασης-στη-σύμη-1681821

Nikolos Farmakidis is honorary consul of Italy in the Dodecanese from 2015 to 2021. He was head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Dodecanese of the Aegean Decentralized Administration and former Directorate of the South Aegean Settlement for 29 years. From 1984-87 he was head of the Dodecanese Department of Transport. He was a freelance engineer for Public Works 1977 - 1983. He graduated in civil engineering from the University of Trieste in 1974.


Κωνσταντίνος Σιμωνίδης​

Νικολός Βασ. Φαρμακίδης

Nikolos Vas. Farmakidis​


ο ιεροδιάκονος Βενέδικτος Ρώσιος (Σπιαχιός, γεννήθηκε στη Σύμη το 1760 και απεβίωσε στο Άθω, στις 28.5.1840

There's a reference in this link to "the hierodeacon Benediktos Rossios (Spiachios, born in Symi in 1760 and died in Athos, on 28.5.1840." Said to be a wandering scholar. "They therefore belonged to a pan-Hellenic circle of scholars, with many acquaintances in diplomatic circles of the West, Russia and the Ottoman Empire."

Among others, Michael Fotiadis Markonis (b. 1775) taught at the School. Nikandros Philadelphos Georgiadis (1793-1873) (student in Kydonias of Theof. Kairis), the hierodeacon Benediktos Rossios (Spiachios, born in Symi in 1760 and died in Athos, on 28.5.1840) and Archimandrite Prokopios Dendrinos from Ithaca ( born on 14.8.1848 in Agios Oros). The last two coexisted in many places, from the time when they were pensioners at the Athonias School, with Evgenios Voulgaris as a teacher, and in Kydonias. Benedict also taught at the Theological School of Halkis, together with the hieromonk Baltholomaios Koutloumusianos and Leontios, he wrote the "Easter Gospel", the services "at Axion Estin" in 1838 and at the "Saints Anargyros Pandas", praises of Saints, etc. Several of these teachers also taught in other large schools in the Greek area, such as in Kydonias, Constantinople and Jerusalem. They therefore belonged to a pan-Hellenic circle of scholars, with many acquaintances in diplomatic circles of the West, Russia and the Ottoman Empire. The library of the School, compiled by the Sinaiites Georgios Makrotevion and the Protosygelos Papa – Grigorio Katsaras, had 798 volumes of which 137 were donated by the Sinaiites. Her students later attended Italian Universities (Padua, Pavia, etc.), where they met other Greek scholars, such as Kapodistria, etc. During the revolution of 21, the School was in great prosperity and was, among other things, an economic factor of the island . The "Kionos" borrowed large sums from it (up to 6,000 groschi), as did many merchants, mainly sponge "starters",

Symi in the Revolution. With the establishment of the Philic society, a three-member committee was appointed in Symi from the three teachers of the School, Nikandros Philadelfos Georgiadis as president and Benedictos and Prokopios as members, for the indoctrination of the Philicians of the Sporades. The financial power of the School was channeled into the revolutionary apparatus by the friends, with the approval of the tax authorities, which is why from the beginning they created friction with some prominent people, who finally managed to close the school in 1820. It became, as they said, a weed nursery educated, i.e. young people who saw the common things of the island with modernizing perceptions. So the School of Agia Marina is the nursery of the Greek Revolution and thus Soukiur Bey asked for its destruction. Some dignitaries gave in. So in Symi, the majority is in favor of the Greek revolution and the national ideals of a national state. ... Thus the self-determination of Greece was considered the only way for development. So the confrontation between the two teams in Symi was very tough. We must note that the confrontation was about active participation and not about helping the revolution in other ways. The expansion of the conflict will last until 1863. Benediktos Rossos and Prokopios Dendrinos, chased by the Turks, go to Mount Athos in 1820 and after the revolution there (1821-22), to Poros. Benedict becomes abbot of the Monastery of Ag. Panteleimonos. Benedict resides in the Monastery of Zoodochos Pigi of Poros, from 1822 until the end of 1825 at least. Benediktos and Procopius were later appointed by Kapodistrias, as teachers at the Great School of Spetses (1828 – July 1830) and then (October 1830), at the Priestly School of Poros. The first Superintendent of the School and the second Director of Courses. Kapodistrias said, "no one in Greece until this day has a true education, except for the old Benedictus of Simaeus, and in fact even the arti was established in Poros as a doctrinal school entrusted to us". In the beginning, after the great disasters they suffered with the Orlofikas and especially with the pirates, the Symians did not trust the Greek revolution in principle. ... Friendly Patriarch of Alexandria Theophilos Pagostas (1764-1833), ... The Symias also asked for the advice of the Hydraians by sending Simon Hatzikosta (8.8.1821).

Then, Benedict advises them to raise that of the Holy Sepulcher in Jerusalem as a revolutionary flag.

Seeing that Kapodistrias did not pay due attention, they resorted to their compatriot Benedict as an intermediary and wrote to him (11.8.29): ... Lord Benedict

... Benedict recounts the situation to Kapodistrias (Sept. 1829) and begs him: "..about which I beseech you to listen with your usual long-suffering to the purposely sent envoy Mr. Simoni, and know everything very precisely."

... Meanwhile, at the beginning of 1833, Othon came to Greece and the Simiacs do not have direct access to the Greek Government and the King. Their men, Benedictus and Dendrinos, retreated to Mount Athos.

... Representatives are Hatzigapitos and Simonas. In May 1830, Benedict also provided the same representatives with a letter, for Augustinos Kapodistrias, and asked him to guide them on how to go to Constantinople, in order to achieve justice for their island.
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Steven Avery

Last edited:

Steven Avery

[Page 230 FOOTNOTE]: one, although I am sure from what he says that he possesses a very superficial knowledge of such matters. Surely if Dr. Tregelles could perform such a Herculean work in three days, could not my uncle, a man of acknowledged learning and experience in such matters, re-peruse his work while I was transcribing the book of Genesis?”
Very nice.

Another corroboration of Benedict’s scholarly impetus and activity while Simonides was a scribe, copyist, calligraphist.

Steven Avery

Latin and Enlighenment Background

Encyclopedia of the Enlightenmen

instead of using their own language. In the new political configuration on which the clergy depended, Latin became the language of administration and science and was an essential part of the education of every aspiring intellectual. After 1750 Walachia and Moldavia, similar
in spirit to the Latinist schools of Transylvania, caught up very quickly. The renewed teaching of Latin in these two vassal provinces of the Ottoman Empire led to a gradual renaissance of studies in philology and history, which in turn fostered the nascent Romanian identity that still felt threatened by Greek civilizing influences. A

Steven Avery


Evgenios Voulgaris​

30 March 2017 Telemachus Odysseides


Philosopher, Theologist, Scholar, Teacher of the Greek Nation (1716 – 1806)

Evgenios Voulgaris was one of the greatest Teachers of the Greek Nation. He was one of the pioneers of the Greek Enlightenment movement, a polyglot and polymath who played a pivotal role in the dissemination of the sciences from the West back to Greece and struggled for the awakening of the subjugated Greek Nation. His actions, together with the rest of the Teachers of the Greek Nation, led to the events of the Greek War of Independence in 1821.

He originated from Corfu. Among his first teachers was Methodios Anthrakites, who influenced him significantly during his life. He continued his studies in Padua where he became acquainted with the works of ancient Greek and modern philosophers, such as John Locke and Gottfried von Leibnitz. In addition, he studied Greek, Latin and theology. By the end of his studies, Voulgaris spoke 10 different languages: Greek, Latin, Italian, German, French, Hebrew, Turkish, Arabic, Russian and Chaldean.

In 1742 he returned to Greece where he became headmaster of the School of Maroutsis Bros in Ioannina. There, he taught philosophy, mathematics, geometry, logic, physics, cosmology and theology from his own textbooks, influenced by the Western European philosophy. He introduced the works of John Locke and Voltaire to Greece based on his own translations of their work. He continued his pedagogic work as headmaster in the School of Kozani and in the Athonite Ecclesiastical School, where he attracted hundreds of students, some of the most notable ones being St. Cosmas of Aetolia, Sergios Macraios and Josephus Mοisiodax. In 1761, he was called up by the Patriarchy of Constantinople, where he taught philosophy and mathematics in the Patriarchic School and was later appointed palatine.

Steven Avery