Jude 1:3 'salvation and life' conflation - Aleph similarity to Codex Athous Lavrensis - Ψ - 044

Steven Avery

James Snapp has many posts on this.


Bill Brown on CARM

Seven Interesting Variants in Jude
James Snapp, Jr. - Dec 2021

● In Jude verse 3, there is a contest, mainly between κοινῆς σωτηρίας (common salvation) (favored by a majority of manuscripts) and κοινῆς ἡμῶν σωτηρίας. (of our common salvation) Although the latter was adopted in Nestle-Aland (and by Tregelles and Souter – but not by Scholz,), it is not easy to discern why any scribe whose exemplar had the longer reading here would omit ἡμῶν. The sentence is easier to understand with ἡμῶν included – which is a point in favor of the shorter reading.

But there are couple of other horses in the race. Κοινῆς ἡμῶν σωτηρίας (our common salvation) has the support of P72, Vaticanus, Alexandrinus, 1739, 2200 et al; κοινῆς σωτηρίας (common salvation) is supported by 018 020 025 049 and hundreds of minuscules, but what does א‎ say? Something very different: κοινῆς ἡμῶν σωτηρίας και ζωης – that is, “our common salvation and life.” (This reading also turns up in 044!) And nestled in the text of some members of the cluster of manuscripts known as the Harklean Group (a.k.a. family 2138 – MSS 206, 429, 522, 614, 630, 1292, 1505, 1611, 1799, 1890, 2138, 2200, 2412, and 2495 – but especially 2138) are the readings κοινῆς ἡμῶν ζωης (of our common life) (1611 2138) and κοινῆς υμῶν ζωης (of your common life) (1505 2495). Putting א‎’s reading alongside the others, it looks very, very much like a conflation of the readings in B and in family 2138.

In which case, in order for the conflation to have been made in א’s text, the Harklean Group’s text of this passage had to already exist before א was made, even though the Greek manuscripts which attest to it are medieval. This is an instructive demonstration of how precarious it is to assume that the readings in later manuscripts must themselves be later.

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Steven Avery

Tommy Wasserman directly did call this a conflation, but he did not discuss the unlikelihood that such an early reading for "life" was used and then disappeared everywhere but the Sinaiticus conflation! (for c. 500 years).

The Epistle of Jude: Its Text and Transmission,
Tommy Wasserman
"A few witnesses, including the nucleus HK group, replace σωτηρίας with ζωής (1505 1611 2138 S:HPh), whereas a few important MSS attest a conflation, τής κοινής ήμών σωτηρίας και ζωής (01 (א) 044 2627Ζ). The attestation of ζωής by 01 (א) shows that the substitution is early. Sakae Kubo suggests that a scribe made the change “because σωτηρία did not cover the things which the scribe wrote" (A textual commentary on P72 at p.226)" - p.247,

Steven Avery

Jude collation - 01 044

Facebook,- Hefin -


Heflin Jones
“….so maybes and possiblies and we don't actually have the evidence...”

Here you can see 044 and Sinaiticus agreeing on 3 variants in Jude 1:3 against all other uncials. One a conflation that is especially difficult to explain as an early manuscript.

The three agreements against all uncials is also an indication of textual connection.



Steven Avery #1. A genuine thanks. I'm looking for interesting Jude manuscripts and you've fully convinced me that 044 is interesting. I should go and look at it in a couple of weeks time. I'm on holiday and away from my laptop for the next 10 days.

#2. Only more complete collation of Jude in both 01 and 03 will confirm if this is more than random happenstance, and which direction dependence is likely.


I also collated 01 and 044 in Jude snce returning from holiday and regaining access to relevant data and tech:

1. Yes 044 and 01 are closely related in Jude.

SA: maybe https://ntg.uni-muenster.de/Jude/ph4/comparison#ms1=01&ms2=044
Nope !

2. But in Acts 044 is further away from 01 than the majority text is. There are 1200+ differences between 044 and 01 in Acts alone. Here's the full data of every single variation between 01 and 044 in Acts:


3. In Mark 9 to 16 044 is somewhat closer to 01 than the MT but not by a significant margin. There are over 300 differences between 044 and 01 in the 7 extant chapters of Mark in 044. Here's the full data of every single variation between 01 and 044 in Mark 9-16:



Hefin Jones - thanks!
Does Muenster have a url for a Jude comparison?
Do you have notes or publication on your
Jude collation?


Steven Avery
Münster's work on Jude was fairly early so their online offerings for it are very limited in comparison with Acts or Mark.
I can flick an excel file with some collations in your direction.


Hefin Jones - thanks! That would be Fantastico!
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Steven Avery

David Robert Palmer -

“ ℵ Ψ 1611 often agree with the Syriac …”.

Fascinating. Amazing. Has there been any collation of their agreements?

Oh yes, I remember why I think the ζωης reading came from Syriac. Because in Acts and the General Epistles, ℵ Ψ 1611 often agree with the Syriac, and if not in agreement, show awareness and influence from Syriac. This is why I would bet that the reading ζωης came from the Syriac.

Steven Avery
Top contributor
David Robert Palmer -
Thanks! And yes, I agree that the new Syriac translations of Jude in the 500s on likely inaugurated the “life” variant, which was even carried back to some “Harklean” Greek manuscripts. Very sensible.


ζωης was an early reading, cf. eth, syr, conflated by ℵ Ψ with σωτηριας. Sakae Kubo suggests ζωης was substituted for σωτηριας

David Robert Palmer
Top contributor
The Epistle of Jude is not found in the Peshitta. Quoting the ECM, its "first appearance in the Syriac version is in the so-called Philoxeniana, commissioned in 507/8 by Philoxenus, the Monophysite bishop of Mabbug...The text represented by "Ph" is fr…
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David Robert Palmer
Top contributor
BTW the witnesses that read ζωης alone are syr-ph mss,h 1505 1611. So some Philoxenian mss read "life" and some read "salvation." My Syriac English translations are as follow: Murdock "life"; Etheridge and Lamsa, "salvation."
because the latter did not cover all the topics hereinafter.
Here is my Swanson style Jude in 62 manuscripts and 12 editions:
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