1. Tikunei Zohar, c. 1300
2. Menachem Tziyoni, 14th Century
3. Shabbethai Sofer, 1603
4. Meir Mahar'am of Lublin, 1608
5. Asber Lemel of Krakow, 16th Century
6. Anonymous Book of Kabballah
7. Isaiah Horowitz, 17th Century
8. Kalonymus Epstein of Krakow, 18th Century
9. Samuel David Luzzatto, 1834
10. Jacob Bachrach, 1890
11. Eliezer Ashkenazi,Ma'asei Hashem, 1583
12. Levi Yitzchak of Berdychiv, Kedushat Levi, 1798
13. Moshe Chaim Ephraim, Degel Machaneh Ephraim, c. l8OO
14. Abraham Danziger, Chayei Adam, 1810
15. Rabbi Benjamin Blech, The Secret of Hebrew Words, 1977
16. Ovadyah Yoseph, Yabia Omer, vol. 9, 2002
10 Rabbis Speak Out on the Name of God" by Nehemia Gordon brings evidence from newly discovered Hebrew manuscripts proving that Jewish rabbis preserved the true pronunciation of God's holy name. This graphic is a snapshot from Nehemia's Support Team Study in which he shares the names of 16 Rabbis from the year 1300 to the year 2002 who all agree the pronunciation of God's name is: YeHoVaH
Christopher W. Clark
The Talks and Research of Nehemia are behind a donation set-up.
And I recommend joining at least for a month or three, since this is superb original research.
=============================Ten Rabbis Speak Out on the Name of God – Part 1
Oct 4, 2017 - 51 minutes
Pavlos D. Vasileiadis, | "Aspects of rendering the sacred Tetragrammaton in Greek"
Robert J. Wilkinson, Tetragrammaton: Western Christians and the Hebrew Name of God: From the Beginnings to the Seventeenth Century
Joseph Dan, History of Jewish Mysticism and Esotericism
The Footnote (Movie)
SA: Fine info from:
2:00 - Radak (love) -David Kimhi - "Knowing the Tetragrammaton is loving God.."
4:45 - Elijah of Vilna (at times referenced by the "forgotten names" folks, the secret aspect)
"quoted in Jewish sources .. to say .. look, our rabbis in the middle ages didn't know how to pronounce the tetragrammaton"
"The vowels of the Name itself are hidden... its vowels are the secret of the Tetragrammaton."
missing vowels (Aleppo Codex) "The assumption is that they know what the vowel is"
7:25 - Masoretic Manuscripts with full vowels
"as of this recording, 150 .. with the full vowels"
Six Key Manuscripts
1. Aleppo Codex (930)
2. Leningrad Codex (1008)
3. British Library, Or 4445 (920-950)
4. Cairo Codex of the Prophets (895)
5. Damascus Crown, Sassoon 507 (I0th Century) - full vowels are quite often, even 3 in a row
6. Sassoon 1053 (10th Century)
8:20 - Aleppo Codex - Ezekiel 28:22 (pic) - excellent example
it would be read as Elohim, so it would not have the vowels of Adonai, and it has Yehovah!
9:05 - Leningrad Codex, Leviticus 25:17
British Library, Or44453 Leviticus 22:9
Cairo Codex of the Prophets, Ezekiel 7:4
Damascus Crown, Deuteronomy 6:4
Sassoon 1053, Exodus 10:9
11:05 - "Jehovah is simply the English pronunciation of Yehovah"
11:15 “The pronunciation Jehovah was unknown until 1520, when it was introduced by Galatinus.."
Brown-Driver-Briggs, page 218
12:00 “...these four letters... if they are read as punctuated, ...(as you yourself well know) they make “Iehova”. However the Jews do not dare to pronounce it as it is written, but put forth in its place Adonai, which is the same thing as Lord.”
Galatinus, De Arcanis Catholicae Veritatis, 1518, folio 48b
Codex Reuchlinianus, Joshua 21:1 (pic) -
dialog with John Reuchlin, author of Augenspiegel,
. He gave his work the form of a dialogue. The two conflicting Christian parties were represented by Capnio (Reuchlin) and the Inquisitor Jacob van Hoogstraaten, O.P. In conciliatory terms, Galatino responded to the queries and suggestions of the former, and refuted the objections of the latter. - Wikipedia
Nice 1 minute summary at 12:55
14:55 "impossible hybrid form?"13:50 Inspiration for this study
"the distinctly Christian ‘Jehovah.’ ”
Robert J. Wilkinson, Tetragrammaton: Western Christians and the Hebrew Name of God (Leiden, 2015), page 46
14:20 - "ok, challenge accepted!"
"the vowels .. the consanants.. this reminds me of the verse"
The voice is the voice of Jacob, but the hands are the hands of Esau” Genesis 27:22
15:50 examples of impossible hybrid forms
Jer 42:6 - anu(slang) anachnu qere/ketiv - result 3 letters have 4 vowels (from anachnu) this is an impossible hybrid form
2 Kings 18:27 -
25:00 - explains how the vowels of Adonai would make a hybrid form - Nehemia explains that there would be no need to change the first vowel
27:05 - "utter nonsense" - "this is a unique situation, in a sense"
27:20 - a number of manuscripts .. the scribe put in exactly the vowels of Adonai
Russian National Library, EVR II, B 3
28:48 - "Now, when scholars ignore Jewish sources, they then turn to other sources"
Sources for Pronunciation of YHVH
1. Christian Greek
2. Pagan Greek
3. [Samaritan] Greek
4. Gnostic Coptic
Study by Thessalonika scholar - Pavlos D. Vasileiadis, "Aspects of rendering the sacred Tetragrammaton in Greek"
Greek Transcriptions of YHVH (33 different ways up the year 500)
#15 is the only one in Jewish source
31:55 - British Library, Papyrus 121, 3rd cent. CE - "something like Yehovah"
32:25 - Gilbert Génébrard, Chronographiae, 1599, page 77
"the earliest person in history to ever use the name Yahweh in Hebrew is Gilbert Génébrard, who is a Christian, and he wrote a book called the Chronographiae in 1599 and on p. 77 he actually refers to Theodorus (Theodoritus in G) of Cyrus who is quoting the Samaritans and he says "based on what Theodorus says in Greek, we can speculate that the Hebrew behind this Greek is Yahiveh". He writes this in Latin ... Wilkinson .. refers to Génébrard, as the "inventor of Yahweh"... Theodoret doesn't write Yahweh, he writes IABE... the first one to back-translate it is Gilbert Genebrard.
33:35 - Scholar at University of Helsinki in Finland
A NAG HAMMADI CONTRIBUTION TO THE DISCUSSION ABOUT THE PRONUNCIATION OF THE TETRAGRAMMATON
Assumption: Taking into account the fact that the sacredness of the Tetragrammaton2 had prevented its public utterance among the Jews in the first centuries of the CE, and the knowledge of its right pronunciation had begun to deteriorate and had altogether vanished in the Middle Ages,3 - (good response from Nehemia)
Gnostic Apocryphon of John
Yaldabaoth (Son of Chaos) Rapes Eve
Gives birth to Yahweh
"can we at least hear what the Jews have to say?"
36:50 -Shows Elijah of Vilna
37:25 - Shattering the Conspiracy of Silence, "I'm not a conspiracy theorist"
Sages transmit the four-letter name to their disciples once in a seven-year period
Babylonian Talmud, Kidushin 71A Rabbah Bar Bar Chanah, c. 250-300
minority opinion - others say twice in the 7-year period
The rabbinical ban on the name was never for them (!)
Book of the Divine Name (Sefer Hashem)
Eleazar Roke’ach of Worms
Published: 2004 (first published, it was in manuscript form)
"a ceremony for transmitting the name"
"Y"Y is the unicjue honorable and terrifying name... It may only be transmitted to the modest... It may only be transmitted over water... Before the rabbi teaches his disciple, they must wash in water and immerse in 40 se'ah [of water], donning white clothes. They must fast on the day they learn it, standing in water up to their ankles. The rabbi will then open his mouth in awe and say, "Blessed are you Y"Y, our God, king of the universe. Y"Y, God of Israel, you are one and your name is one. You commanded us to hide your great name, for your name is terrifying. Blessed are you Y"Y, and blessed is your glorious name forever, the honorable and terrifying name, Y"Y our God. ...Blessed are you Y"Y who reveals his secret to those who fear him. The rabbi and his disciple shall place their eyes upon the water and say, "... 'The sound of Y"Y upon the water' (Psalms 29:3)”
"...in this description, Rabbi Eieazar presented a tradition that was practiced in his surroundings and family, and that he may have participated in himself, both as a disciple and a rabbi..."
Joseph Dan, History of Jewish Mysticism and Esotericism, vol. 6, page 561
“The voice of the LORD is upon the waters” [KJV]
46:10 - 2nd witness
Joseph Ibn Tzayach, 15th Century - never translated to English, never printed in Hebrew - Responsa (answers to questions) - (autograph)
Question #43 -
A certain sage has been uttering the name according to [its] letters and a certain rabbi rebuked him for this. But [the sage] was stubborn in his actions...
Joseph ibn Tzayach, 15th Century