Clement of Alexandria - Theodotus - Eclogae propheticae - Pantaenus and Hebrews

Steven Avery

Clement (Clemens) of Alexandria - The Theodotus reference

Charles Forster

Clement of Alexandria == Ps-Clemens

"By two and three witnesses every word is established.
By Father, and Son, and Holy Spirit,

by whose witness and help the prescribed commandments ought to be kept."

Eclogæ of ps.-Clement of Alexandria (PG 9:704), cit. Forster, 74, :

Πᾶν ῥῆμα ἵσταται ἐπὶ δύο καὶ τριῶν μαρτύρων, ἐπὶ πατρὸς καὶ υἱοῦ καὶ ἁγίου πνεύματος,
ἐφ' ὧν μαρτύρων καὶ βοηθῶν αἱ ἐντολαὶ λεγόμεναι φυλάσσεσθαι ὀφείλουσιν.

“Pán ríma ístatai epí dýo kaí trión martýron, ep (?) ípatrós kaí yioú kaí agíou pnévmatos,
ef ón martýron kaí voithón ai entolaí legómenai fylássesthai ofeílousin."

Eclogae propheticae
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Steven Avery

Pure Bible - two posts

The first post is an Introduction to Theodotus:

2nd Century - Theodotus


So far, these all seem to be the same individual: l


Theodotus of Byzantium

Theodotus the Gnostic


Notes here from the Daniel Wallace book.

Revisiting the Corruption of the New Testament: Manuscript, Patristic, and Apocryphal Evidence (2011)

p. 60 - Philip R. Miller
p. 140-142 - Adam G. Messer
p. 241 - Brian J. Wright

Theodotus the Money-Changer, Adoptionist (during Zephyrinus 198-217) was a disciple of:

Theodotus the Tanner (Eusebius Hist. eccl. 5.28.3)

Theodotus the Cobbler
"Eusebius also recorded an anonymous account of some disciples of Theodotus the Cobbler who intentionally corrupted their copies of the Scriptures.12 "
12. Eusebius, Hist. eccl. 5.28.16.


Revision Revised (1881)
John William Burgon

Textual Mechanic - Timothy Mitchell
Asclepiodotus and Theodotus, the Banker:


p. 140-14

Adoptionism did not hit Rome until around 190 CE, and Epiphanius claims that its originator was Theodotus the Tanner.50 It soon exerted enough influence to elicit the reactions of concerned, orthodox apologists.51 Whatever manuscript influence Adoptionists

50 Epiphanius, Panarion 34. Theodotus the Tanner was active during the late second century. More precise dates for those considered heretics are sometimes unattainable. Approximate dates will be included when available. Epiphanius's discussion of Theodotus from Byzantium is available for the English reader in Frank Williams, Vie Panarion of Epiphanius: Books II and III (Sects 47-80, De Fide), Nag Hammadi and Manichaean Studies 36 (Leiden: Brill, 1994), 2,72-77,91.


Thomas Burgess gives us a sense of how Theodotus is controversial.


Tracts on the divinity of Christ, and on the repeal of the statute against blasphemy. To which is prefixed a preface containing strictures on the recent publications of mr. Belsham and dr. Carpenter (1820)
Thomas Burgess

5. Mr. Belsham says (p. 403),
“the ancient Unitarians always maintained, that theirs was the prevailing doctrine in the church, till the time of Victor, Bishop of Rome, about A. D. 200, who excommunicated Theodotus of Byzantium, a learned Unitarian. This assertion of the Unitarians is contradicted, but not disproved, by Eusebius and others.”

This claim to Apostolical authority, whatever Mr. Belsham may say, was effectually repelled by Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clemens Alexandrinus, Caius, Eusebius, &c. In modem times the claim was revived by Zwicker and Toland, and was refuted by Comenius and Bishop Bull, and by Mosheim. To Comenius, Zwicker replied by arguments, which Ittigius says were not worth answering. ... (Latin and references) ... “ Zwicker’s assertion has been of late years renewed by Mr. Lindsey and Dr. Priestley, who were refuted by Dr. Randolph and Bishop Horsley, To Dr. Priestley’s theories Mr. Belsham has succeeded, without enlarging either his illustrations or authorities; and, if I mistake not, I have fully shown, that the great authority, on whom Mr. Belsham’s historical argument chiefly rests, has not asserted what he imputes to him, and tljat it was impossible he should.


Thomas Randolph is similar to Burgess


Theodotus is listed as the first clear support of Matthew 28:19 as in our traditional text. Also I have him listed for Matthew 3:11, Matthew 10:8, Luke 2:22, John 1:18 (split, God and Son) and John 8:40


All this above is to help unravel the identity of our Theodotus, next we will get into the section that comes from Ps-Clement of Alexandria.

Ps-Clement of Alexandria --Theodotus

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Steven Avery

The next post is the Clement of Alexandria reference:

Clement of Alexandria - Theodotus Ref

3. "By two and three witnesses every word is established.
By Father, and Son, and Holy Spirit,
by whose witness and help the prescribed commandments ought to be kept." (1872)


New Plea - Charles Forster

But these Patristic representations of the three Divine Persons as ‘ Witnesses,’ and apparent allusions, consequently, to the only Scripture in which the three are so introduced, are anticipated, at once, and brought home to the text of the three Heavenly Witnesses, by an authority dating little more than a single century from the date of St. John’s First Epistle itself. This authority is preserved in the works of St. Clemens Alexandrinus; and is allowed on all hands to be either his own writing, or that of a writer of the same period, Theodotus. The primitive antiquity of the passage in question is indisputable and undisputed. Its literal agreement with 1 John v. 7, I will add, is such, that the spirit of theological controversy could alone, one might think, deny it the character of what Paley terms ‘a tacit quotation.'

The connection indicated in this passage between the Mosaic law of witness and its highest exemplification in St. John’s three Heavenly Witnesses, self-evidently commends it to the uncontroversial eye as, at once, a tacit quotation of and comment on the disputed verse. This first impression, however, will be obviously strengthened, if, on examination, the passage prove to contain two distinct clauses, and that both clauses are found in the First Epistle of St. John. That this is so, the annexed table will sufficiently establish.





5. Clement of Alexandria (or Theodotus), Op. Clement, tom.2, p. 992, ed. Potter :—

“In duobus et tribus testibus stat omne verbum; in
Filio et Sancti Spiritu; quibus testibus et adjutoribus ae quae
sunt precepta servari debent”
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Steven Avery

Clement of Alexandria

Paedagogus (Greek: Παιδαγωγός, "Pedagogue") is the second in the great trilogy of Clement of Alexandria.

Having laid a foundation in the knowledge of divine truth in the first book, he goes on in the Paedagogus to develop a Christian ethic. His design does not prevent him from taking a large part of his material from the Stoic Musonius Rufus, the master of Epictetus; but for Clement the real instructor is the incarnate Logos.

The first book deals with the religious basis of Christian morality, the second and third with the individual cases of conduct. As with Epictetus, true virtue shows itself with him in its external evidences by a natural, simple, and moderate way of living.

Edward Burton p. 56



The History of Heresies and Their Refutation: Or, The Triumph of the Church
By Saint Alfonso Maria de' Liguori

On p. 427-428 he has a lot like Hammond. He includes two from Paedogogus.
His context is 3-ness and Deity of the Spirit, his examples include heavenly witnesses allusions.


Henry Hammond

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Steven Avery

Biblical Notes and Dissertations to Confirm and Illustrate the Deity of Christ (1843)
Joseph John Gurney

II. The next evidence to be adduced, in support
of the opinion that the epistle to the Hebrews was
written by Paul, is that of ecclesiastical tradition.
The Greek and eastern fathers are unanimous in
ascribing the epistle to Paul. The earliest authority
amongst them, applying to the subject, is that of
Pantsenus, the president of the Christian school at
Alexandria, who flourished, a. d. 180. From a pas-
sage in the ecclesiastical history of Eusebius, we find
that this ancient presbyter spoke of the epistle to the
Hebrews, as the work of Paul, and accounted for the
apostle's not attaching his name to it, on the ground
of modesty, and because his peculiar office was that
of ministering to the Gentiles.'

Pantaenus was succeeded in the school of Alexan-
dria by Clement, (a. n. 192,) whose testimony to the
Pauline origin of this epistle is also preserved by
Eusebius, and is quite explicit.11 Origen, (a. d. 230,)
the successor of Clement in his office, received the
epistle as written by Paul, and expressly declares
that it was handed down as such by the ancients'
Now the ancients (0/ £e%uioi utbci;) to whom this
father refers, were probably Christians who lived in
apostolic times, or very soon afterwards; whence we
may conclude that even in the primitive age of the
church, the epistle to the Hebrews was received as
the work of Paul. This conclusion is strengthened
by the fact, that the earliest versions which were made
of the canonical scriptures of the New Testament—

Steven Avery


Eusebius, EH.5.9-11: Pantaenus and Clement of Alexandria

Notes and Commentary:
These three chapters focus on the bishops and teachers at Alexandria, Egypt.
Chapter 9 notes the imperial transition from Antoninus to Commodus (sole emperor, 180-192). In Alexandria Julian succeeded Agrippinus as bishop.
Chapter 10 introduced Pantaenus, a man “very famous for his learning”, who directed a “school of sacred learning” in Alexandria, which, Eusebius says, continued to his day. It is noted that Pantaenus had been influenced by Stoicism and that tradition holds he had been a herald of the gospel to the East and had gone as far as India as an “evangelist.” It is also noted that when he arrived in India, he found that there were already those who knew Christ, since the apostle Bartholomew had preached to them and left them the Gospel of Matthew “in Hebrew letters.”
Chapter 11 turns to Clement of Alexandria (named after Clement of Rome), who had studied the Scriptures with Pantaenus. Eusebius says that Clement made reference to Pantaenus in his Hypotyposes and alluded to him also in his Stromateis, where he also makes reference to having consulted various men who had known the ancient men and preserved the “true tradition” directly from the apostles.