Euthymius Zigabenus

Steven Avery


Euthymius Zigabenus - (d 1118)
Euthymius Zigabenus or Zigadenus or Zygadenus (Greek: Εὐθύμιος Ζιγαβηνός or Ζυγαδηνός; died after 1118) was a 12th-century monk and commentator on the Bible. He was a friend of the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, for whom he wrote a lengthy work on heresies, Panoplia Dogmatica or Panoply of Doctrine (or "Full Armour of Belief"). This began in the apostolic era and continued down to the Bogomils, some of whom he personally examined. The entry on the Bogomils is our main source of information about them. Nothing is known about his life.[1] He was a monk and lived in the monastery of the Virgin Mary near Constantinople. He was favoured by both the emperor and his daughter Anna Comnena, who extols his learning and piety in her Alexiad.[2] He also wrote a commentary on the Psalms, one on the four gospels, and one on the letters of St. Paul. These are based mainly on patristic sources.

Orthodox WikiΙωάννειο_κόμμα
and as a result it was widely accepted that the disputed words did not exist in the older Greek texts of the New Testament, but are a later addition. In the east, one of the first to quote and interpret it is
Efthymios Zigavinos (late 11th-early 12th century) [6] . ( Euthymius Zigabenus )
PG 130,872B.

PBF on Orthodox Wiki

Grantley McDonald
Nothing in RGA or BCEME

The Witness of God is Greater

PBF (this page)
Euthymius Zigabenus


Pavlos D. Vasileiadis

Manuscript “revision” in harmony with the Johannine Comma: The case of Euthymius Zigabenus' (Zigadenus) Panoplia dogmatic (Jan 11, 2012)

The Commentary on the Letters of John: Zigabenus did not read in his NT text (early 12th cent.) the Johannine Comma (Jan, 14, 2012)

Zigabenus' NT (early 12th cent.) did not include the Johannine Comma (2018)
Matt comment (minor)


KJV Today

Does Zigabenus discuss the grammar?
Facebook - Pure Bible


Recent papers on Zigabenus or touching on his textual aspects

Amy Donaldson #2

Panoplia Dogmatike - a study on the antiheretical anthology of Euthymios Zygadenos in the Post-Byzantine Periode.
History of the first publication in Greek in 1710 and edition of fragments with scholia on Pseudo-Dionysios the Areopagite and Gregory of Nazianzus from Ivirion 281 (2010)
Nadejda Vladimirova Miladinova


Euthymius Zigabenus. Exposition of the Psalter & Dogmatic Chapters as contained in Moscow Synodal Library manuscript gr. 195 and collated with other early manuscripts from Paris (Bibliothèque Nationale), London (British Library), Constantinople (Old Seraglio Library), Sinai (Saint Catherine’s Monastery Library), Florence (Laurenziana Library) and Munich (Bavarian State Library), by John Raffan, 2015.

Euthymius, and Alexius. Panoplia dogmatikē Alexiou vasileōs tou Komnēnou. Tergovystō: [publisher not identified], 1710.
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Steven Avery

The Witness of God is Greater
p. 345 Euthymius Zigabenus and
p. 460 Panoplia dogmatica (circa 1100 AD)

p. 345-346
[Preamble] Some have said that Ezra, others that Hezekiah made a collection of the psalms, one hundred and fifty in number. For therein the number fifty, esteemed by the Hebrews, being arrived at through seven sevens, is perceived, and so too is the mystery of the Trinity, with the unit there being added on account of the one Godhead in three persons. (Euthymius, Exposition of the Psalter, A Preamble to the Exposition of the Book of Psalms, §67; Translated by John Raffan, 2015, p. 7)

o Greek: Oἱ μὲν οὖν εἶπον Ἔσδραν, οἱ δὲ Ἐζεκίαν συναγαγεῖν τοὺς ψαλμοὺς, εἰς ἑκατὸν καὶ πεντήκοντα συναριθμουμένους. Ὁμοῦ γὰρ ὁ παρ’ Ἑβραίοις ἐνθεωρεῖται τιμώμενος ἀριθμὸς τῆς Πεντηκοστῆς, δι’ ἑβδομάδος ἑβδομάδων συμπεραινόμενος, ὁμοῦ δὲ καὶ τὸ τῆς Tριάδος συνεπιθεωρεῖται μυστήριον, τῆς μονάδος ἐκεῖ προστιθεμένης, διὰ τὴν μίαν ἐν τρισὶ | προσώποις Θεότητα. (Euthymius, Exposition of the Psalter, A Preamble to the Exposition of the Book of Psalms, §67; Moscow Synodal Library MSS gr. 195 & other early MSS, Transcribed and Collated by John Raffan, 2015, p. 8)


Ps. 66:8 β "And let all the ends of the earth fear him." By the triple repetition he indicated the three hypostases of the divinity, and by saying ‘him’ in the singular, he indicated the unity of the divinity. For even though each of the three persons is God, yet he is called one tri-hypostatic God.
(Euthymius, Psalm 66. Towards fulfilment; in hymns; a psalm of an ode; Translation by John Raffan, 2015, p. 361)

o Greek: "Kαὶ φοβηθήτωσαν αὐτὸν πάντα τὰ πέρατα τῆς γῆς." Διὰ μὲν τοῦ τριπλασιασμοῦ, τὸ τρισυπόστατον ἐνέφηνε, διὰ δὲ τοῦ εἰπεῖν ἑνικῶς, αὐτὸν, τὸ ἑνιαῖον τῆς θεότητος. Εἰ γὰρ καὶ Θεὸς ἕκαστον τῶν τριῶν προσώπων, ἀλλ’ εἷς Θεὸς λέγεται τρισυπόστατος. (Euthymius,
Psalm 66. Towards fulfilment; in hymns; a psalm of an ode; Moscow Synodal Library MSS gr. 195 & other early MSS, Transcribed and Collated by John Raffan, 2015, p. 360)


Ps. 135:4 "To him who alone works great wonders." The ‘alone’ is used in contradistinction to the idols. For ‘Lord’ is what he calls the one God in three persons. (Euthymius, Psalm 135. Alleluia; Translated by John Raffan, 2015, p. 719)

o Greek: "Tῷ ποιήσαντι θαυμάσια μεγάλα μόνῳ." Tὸ, μόνῳ, πρὸς ἀντιδιαστολὴν κεῖται τῶν εἰδώλων. Kύριον γὰρ λέγει, τὸν ἐν τρισὶ προσώποις ἕνα Θεόν. (Euthymius, Psalm 135. Alleluia; Moscow Synodal Library MSS gr. 195 & other early MSS, Transcribed and Collated by
John Raffan, 2015, p. 720)


p. 460 - LOTS of introductory material

Again [here follows] the theology of the great Athanasius about the Father and the Son and the
Holy Spirit being at the same time both distinct and united. And that when those things which the
Divine Scriptures say about the Father are the same things again said about the Son and about
the Holy Spirit, it is proof of one Godhead in these three
. (Euthymius, Panoplia, Chapter 2;
Translated by Jeroen Beekhuizen, correspondence, May 2020)

Greek: Έτι περί Πατρός καὶ Υἱοῦ καὶ ἁγίου Πνεύματος, διακεκριμένη ἅμα καὶ ἡνωμένη
θεολογία του μεγάλου Αθανασίου, καὶ ὅτι ἃ λέγουσιν "αἱ θεῖαι γραπφαὶ περὶ τοῦ Πατρὸς,
ταῦτα φασι πάλιν καὶ περὶ τοῦ Υἱοῦ καὶ περὶ τοῦ άγίου Πνεύματος, δεικνύουσαι μίαν τὴν
ἐν τοῖς τρισὶ θεότητα." (Euthymius, Panoplia, Chapter 2; Migne Graeca, PG 130.49)

The way that fire is heating and is making the iron bright and is not partaking of its coldness or
blackness, the same way the divinity [i.e. the divine quality] imparted [or, shared] the humanity [i.e. the
human quality] of its own power but did not partake of its weakness.

Greek: Ὥσπερ τὸ πῦρ πυρακτοῖ μὲν καὶ λαμπρύνει τὸν σίδηρον, οὐ μεταλαμβάνει δὲ τῆς
αὐτοῦ ψυχρότητος ἢ μελανίας· οὕτω καὶ ἡ θεότης μετέδωκε μὲν τῇ ἀνθρωπότητι τῆς οἰκείας
δυνάμεως, οὐ μετέλαβε δὲ τῆς ἀσθενείας αὐτῆς.

The purity addresses our own dirt, but the dirt does not touch the purity. It is said that "the light shines
in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it." The gloom disappears when the [light] ray is
present, and the sun does not become dark by the gloom.

Greek: Ἡ μὲν καθαρότης ὁμιλεῖ τῷ ἡμετέρῳ ῥύπῳ, ὁ δὲ ῥύπος οὐχ ἅπτεται τῆς καθαρότητος.
Τὸ φῶς γάρ, φησίν, ἐν τῇ σκοτίᾳ φαίνει, καὶ ἡ σκοτία αὐτὸ οὐ κατέλαβεν. Ἀφανίζεται γὰρ τῇ
παρουσίᾳ τῆς ἀκτῖνος ὁ ζόφος, οὐ τῷ ζόφῳ ἀμαυροῦται ὁ ἥλιος.

The word "one" is applied, i) to things homoousian [i.e., of the same nature], where there is a
sameness of nature, but a difference of persons, as in this phrase, "And the three are one" (1
John 5:7); i
i) to things heteroousian [i.e., of different natures], where there is a sameness of persons,
but a difference of natures, as in this phrase, "And both together are one, not by nature, but by

Greek: Τὸ ἕν ἐπὶ μὲν τῶν ὁμοουσίων λέγεται, ἔνθα ταυτότης μὲν φύσεως, ἑτερότης δὲ
ὑποστάσεων, ὡς τὸ καὶ "τὰ τρία ἔν" (1 Jn. 5:7)· ἐπὶ δὲ τῶν ἑτεροουσίων, ἔνθα ταυτότης μὲν
ὑποστάσεων, ἑτερότης δὲ φύσεων, ὡς τὸ "καὶ τὸ συναμφότερον ἐν, ἀλλʼ οὐ τῇ φύσει, τῇ δὲ

As "one" is a word variously used; for we say, "one" in number, as Peter: "one" in species, as man:
"one" in genus, as animal. Thus also with respect to "two"; we say, "two" in number, as Peter and Paul:
"two" in species, as man and horse : "two" in genus, as essence and (0249) colour. When therefore we
speak of Christ as "two", we do not call him "two" in number, but "one" in number by the unity of
person, and "two" in species, that is, in nature, by the duality of natures; for Gregory the divine says,
"And both together are one, not by nature, but by conjunction."

Greek: Ὥσπερ τὸ ἔν τῶν πολλαχῶς λεγομένων ἐστὶ, λέγεται γὰρ ἕν τῷ ἀριθμῷ, ὡς ὁ Πέτρος
τυχὸν, καὶ ἐν τῷ εἴδει, ὡς ὁ ἄνθρωπος, καὶ ἕν τῷ γένει, ὡς τὸ ζῶον· οὔτω καὶ τὰ δύο. Ἀέγεται
γὰρ δύο τῷ ἀριθμῷ, ὡς Πέτρος καὶ Παῦλος, καὶ δύο τῷ εἴδει, ὡς ἄνθρωπος καὶ ἴππος, καὶ δύο
τῷ γένει, ὡς οὐσία καὶ (0249) χρῶμα. Ὅταν οὗν λέγομεν τὰ δύο ἐπὶ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, οὐ δύο τῷ
ἀριθμῷ τοῦτον λέγομεν, ἀλλʼ ἕνα μὲν τῷ ἀριθμῷ διὰ τὴν μονάδα τῆς ὑποστάσεως, δύο δὲ τῷ
εἴδει, τουτέστι τῇ φύσει, διὰ τὴν δυάδα τῶν φύσεων. θησὶ γὰρ καὶ Γρηγόριυς ὁ Θεολόγος ὅτι τὸ
συναμφότερον ἐν οὐ τῇ φύσει, τῇ δὲ συνόδῳ.
Euthymius, Panoplia, Chapter 12; Migne Graeca, PG 130.248-249; Tîrgovişte, 1710, κηʹ [p. 28v];
Translated by Pavlos D Vasileiadis, correspondence, May 2020.

 [1 John 5:6-9] "And it is the Spirit which testifieth because the Spirit is the truth. And there are
Three who give testimony in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost.
And these three
are one.
And there are three that give testimony on earth: the spirit and the water and the blood.
And these three are one. If we receive the testimony of men, the testimony of God is greater." (1
John 5:6-9) See now again, how the preacher of truth calls the Spirit by nature God, and of God; for
having said, that it is the Spirit of God that witnesses, a little onward he has, “the witness of God is
greater.” (1 John 5:9) How then is he a creature, who is declared to be God with the Father of all things,
and completive of the Holy Trinity? (Euthymius, Panoplia, Chapter 12)

o Greek: "Καὶ τὸ πνεῦμά ἐστιν τὸ μαρτυροῦν, ὅτι τὸ πνεῦμά ἐστιν ἡ ἀλήθεια· Ὅτι τρεῖς εἰσιν
οἱ μαρτυροῦντες ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, ὁ Πατήρ, ὁ Λόγος, καὶ τὸ ἅγιον Πνεῦμα· καὶ οὗτοι οἱ τρεῖς
ἕν εἰσι. Καὶ τρεῖς εἰσιν οἱ μαρτυροῦντες ἐν τῇ γῇ, τὸ Πνεῦμα καὶ τὸ ὕδωρ, καὶ τὸ αἷμα· καὶ
οἱ τρεῖς εἰς τὸ ἐν εἰσὶν. Εἰ τὴν μαρτυρίαν τῶν ἀνθρώπων λαμβάνομεν, ἡ μαρτυρία τοῦ
θεοῦ μείζων ἐστί." (1 John 5:6-9) Θέα δὴ πάλιν, ὅτι τῆς ἀληθείας ὁ κῆρυξ Θεόν τε καὶ ἐκ Θεοῦ
θυσικῶς τὸ Πνεῦμα καλεῖ. Εἰρηκὼς γὰρ, ὅτι τὸ Πνεῦμά ἐστι τοῦ Θεοῦ τὸ μαρτυροῦν, μικρόν τι
προελθὼν ἐπιφέρει, "Ἡ μαρτυρία τοῦ Θεοῦ μείζων ἐστί." (1 John 5:9) Πῶς οὖν ἐστι ποίημα τὸ
τῶν ὅλων Πατρὶ συνθεολογούμενον, καὶ τῆς ἁγίας Τριάδος συμπληρωτικόν; (Euthymius,
Panoplia, Chapter 12; Tîrgovişte, 1710, ριβʹ [p. 112r]; Migne Graeca, PG 130.871-872)
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Steven Avery

Notes on PBF an earlier thread ... and need TC email study


I agree. The site is uneven and the logic fails, it is not the actual issues we have with Zigabenus. On KJV-Today a few sections are truly excellent and look to involve original research. A few sections are good-ok.

And a few sections have problems like this one you caught with Zigabenus
Two of the most problematic are:

4.2 Non-extant manuscripts
4.4 1904 Patriarchal Text - Teunis Van Lopik brought this one up on textualcriticism.

Here is a site that says that the ms info is against Zigabenus:

Manuscript revision in harmony with the Johannine Comma:
The case of Euthymius Zigabenus' (Zigadenus) Panoplia dogmatica
Wednesday, January 11, 2012

The Commentary on the Letters of John: Zigabenus did not read in his NT text (early 12th cent.) the Johannine Comma /
Saturday, January 14, 2012

Questions about whether Zigabenus is a real evidence or not go back some centuries, even to the sections by Matthaei and Knittel.
And involve both ms and interpretation so they are a bit complex. (I have never used Zigabenus as an evidence.) This article is a review of Burgess, and a reference from Cyril of Alexandria is involved

London Quarterly Review
Controversy on 1 John v. 7

My view. This is one of those places where most look at the issues superficially. I would like to study it more, however it would take a while to even lay out the issues. They involve context and interpretation, the relationship with Cyril of Alexandria's writings and the manuscript issues.

However, you are right that the logic on KJV-Today looks a bit weak.


This post archived at:

[TC-Alternate-list] Euthymius Zigabenus, the Panoplia Dogmatica and the heavenly witnesses
Steven Avery - November 20, 2012

Steven Avery

The American Ecclesiastical Review;: A Monthly Publication for the Clergy, Volume 17 (1897)
Thomas Joseph Lamy

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