Galatians 1:1 and Marcion's "Jesus Christ, who raised himself from the dead"

Steven Avery


davidbrainerd said:
I stand by my original comment that calling Jesus "our God and Savior" is Marcionism not orthodoxy.
This is an interesting point to consider, appreciated.

Galatians 1:1 (AV)
Paul, an apostle, (not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ,
and God the Father, who raised him from the dead; )

Marcion: To the Galatians
From: W. C. van Manen, "Marcions Brief van Paulus aan de Galatiers"
Theologisch tijdschrift, Vol 21 (Leiden, 1887), pp. 528-533.
Transcribed into English by D. J. Mahar (1998).

1 Paul, an apostle, not of men, nor by man, but by Jesus Christ, who raised himself from the dead;

Albert Barnes points out that Jerome specifically said that Marcion changed his scriptures here to match this doctrine. So I would like to find the Jerome spot and text.

Sebastian Moll in The Arch-heretic Marcion p. 64-66 has a couple of very interesting pages about the issues of the Christology involved. And he also looks at Marcion's docetic position. Fine section when looking at this scripture change attempt by Marcion.

Back to Jerome, we have a very helpful secondary source here, with Jerome's local and text in English:

The best place to begin this discussion of Marcion’s textual criticism on the Corpus Paulinum is the first verse of Galatians, the first tract in his corpus. This reading is not transmitted by Epiphanius or Adamantius; rather, our knowledge of this verse stems primarily from Jerome’s testimony in his commentary on Galatians, with possible corroboration by Tertullian.132 Jerome writes, “It also must be noted that in Marcion’s Apostolikon ‘et per Deum Patrem’ is not written since he wanted to show that Christ was not resurrected by God the Father, but by himself.”133 Marcion’s copy of Galatians then began "Paul, apostle not from men, nor through a man, but through Jesus Christ who raised him(self) from the dead.”

132. Jerome, Comm. Gal. 375 (PL 26 313A); cf. Tertullian, Marc. 5.1.3 9-11; 5.1.6; 5.2.1 (CCSL 1 664,9-11; 664,10; 665-666).

133. Sciendum quoque in Marcionis Apostolo non esse scriptum, el per Deum Patrum, volentis exponere Christum non a Deo Patre, sed per semetipsum suscitatum (Comm.Gal. 375 [PL 26 313A]).

Canonizing Paul: Ancient Editorial Practice and the Corpus Paulinum
Eric W. Scherbenske

Here is the Jerome section, urls subject to 2 per post limit:

.... Other heresies creep in the door and insinuate that Christ did not have a real body and that he is God but not man.37 There is also a new heresy that rips apart the incarnate humanity of Christ.38 The faith of the church, then, is trapped among formidable shipwrecks of false teaching. If it confesses that Christ is [only] man, then Ebion and Photinus gain ground. If it contends that he is [only] God, then Mani,39 Marcion,40 and the author of the new leaching all bubble up to the surface. Let each and every one of them hear that Christ is both God and man—not that one is God and the other man, but rather that he who is God from all eternity deigned to become man in order to save us.'41

We should be aware that the phrase “and through God the Father” is not found in Marcion’s version of the Apostle.42 Marcion wished to present Christ as having been resurrected not by God the Father but through his own power, just as Christ says, “Tear down this temple and I shall raise it up on the third day,”43 and elsewhere, “No one takes my life from me, but I lay it down of my own accord. I have the power to lay it down and I have the power to take it up again.”44

42. This testimony, undoubtedly taken from Origen’s commentary on (Galatians, enables us to reconstruct Marcion’s revision of Paul’s Greek: ... See A. von Harnack, Martian: Das Evangelium vom fremden Gott ... (Leipzig: Hinrichs, 1924), p. 67*.
43. Jn 2.19
44. Jn 10.18.

Commentary on Galatians (2010) p. 64-65
Translated by Andrew Cain


Note to CARM, you can change the settings to not have these quotes in italics! Which loses the italics in the original. (Off to their section about the forum.) Ok, I switched from quote to indent.