Hermas and Barnabas resources and timeline

Steven Avery

Brought from the white parchment thread, to be tweaked and expanded:

Dates that relate directly to the Hermas and Barnabas timeline.

Hermas and Barnabas timeline

1513 - Stapulensis publishes Latin Hermas

1843 - date of Simonides Greek Barnabas (characterized as a 'Sinaitic' Barnabas in the early church father editions)

1843 - date of review/extract from Simonides Barnabas in the Star of the East of Smyrna

1845 - Uspensky sees Barnabas and Hermas in Sinai, writes consistent with both being full books -

1855 - Simonides edition published by Anger & Dindorf, with their notes it gets a publication date of 1856
Hermae pastor: Graece primum ediderunt et interpretationem veterum latinam
Anger - Dindorf (original Simoindes edition)
Hathi Trust

1856 - Hermas Greek pages (6?) seized from Simonides in forgery (Uranios) brouhaha, theorized that Simonides planned a palimpsest

1856 - Tischendorf-Lipsiensis edition of Simonides Hermas
Hermas Pastor Graece ex fragmentis Lipsiensibus instituta quaestione de vero Graeci textus Lipsiensis font

1857 - Tischendorf accuses Simonides Hermas of being a "medieval retranslation"

1859 - Tischendorf claims to have never seen Uspensky references

1859 - before first retraction - letters
"His views on Hermas were wrong, but in one thing he was right : the Athos text is not only much inferior than the Sinai one, but is also certainly corrupted from the Latin"

1860 - Tischendorf on Simonides Hermas (first retraction) - https://books.google.com/books?id=4Ac4AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA45

1862 - Tischendorf publishes Hermas from Sinaiticus with many similar features

1862 - Simonides 1843 Barnabas from Smyrna and Star of the East excerpts/review (probable date of Athenaeum 1876 reference)

1863 - Tischendorf retracts his accusations against the Simonides Hermas

1864 - Simonides Periplus of Hannon list of publications includes 1843 Barnabas -

1864 - James Donaldson linguistic questioning of Sinaiticus Barnabas and Hermas antiquity
p 306-311 here.
"almost all of the arguments that were adduced against the Athos manuscript adducible against the Sinaitic"...
"against the genuineness of the newly discovered text"
1866 - Westcott - "Dr Donaldson's arguments (I. p. 399) prove too much, for Cod. Sinait. dates from a period within 'the first five centuries of the Christian era."

1874 - James Donaldson marshals more evidence against Barnabas antiquity
"either a very corrupt MS. of Barnabas, or a translation based on the Latin"

1874 - James Donaldson notes the Barnabas of Simonides.

1876-01 - German editors note the reference of the Barnabas of Simoindes and say they are "puzzled"

1876 - Athenaeum, in review of Patrum Apostolicorum Opera (
https://books.google.com/books?id=ReRCAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA54 ) and in response to 1874 Donaldson notation, says of Simonides Barnabas:
"Simonides ... went to the trouble of printing at his own expense an edition of the entire Epistle of Barnabas, for the very purpose of putting the date 1843 upon it. ... Simonides had taken the trouble to fabricate his newspaper [Star of the East] as well as the date of his edition"
1876-05 - German publication of Gebhardt and Harnack uses Athenaeum explanation https://books.google.com/books?id=7IwYgNse6H4C&pg=RA1-PR23

1878 - German Barnabas has same explanation https://books.google.com/books?id=88yvav5Uw-4C&pg=PR23

(The last points are countered by the research of Chris Pinto showing the actual review publication that was said not to exist, this is an area that could use linguistic attention, we do have some translation.)

1887 - Ante-Nicene Fathers edition - "Simonides smyrna, 1843, [Sinait. Text.]" https://books.google.com/books?id=YIksAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA16

1888 - Spyridon Lampros sort of unravels Hermas issues

A Collation of the Athos Codex of the Shepherd of Hermas

1895 and 1900 - Lambrou catalog of Mt. Athos confirms Kallinikos and Simonides,

1901 -Grenfell and Hunt point out that Athous is closer to papyri than original Sinaiticus
Fragments of the Shepherd of Hermas (1901)
"The papyrus tends to agree with the Athous and the corrector of the Sinaiticus as against the first hand....' (p. 195).

1903 -Grenfell and Hunt - Greek fragments of Hermas from Oxyrhynchus Papyri -

1907 - Lake, Kirsopp - Facsimiles of the Athos Fragrments of the Shepherd of Hermas, Oxford 1907

1907 - Literary Forgeries by James Anson Ferrer uses Lambrou catalog to show more "coincidences" that support Simonides efforts on Sinaiticus.

1938 - "The text of the Codex Athous as printed by Lake1 has been used in this conjectural restoration, a text from which the Sinaiticus varies in small details but apparently not in substance"
Facsimiles of the Athos Fragments of the Shepherd of Hermas, Oxford, 1907
Skeat & Milne, Scribes & Correctors, 1938 p. 16

1951 - Musurillo places papyri tables, asks for newer and different type of Critical edition.
The need of a new edition of Hermas. In Theological Studies. Oxford.

2014 - Star of the East confirmed as authentic publication, full section available with review, Chris Pinto research

2018 - David W. Daniels book presents Hermas info
"In Chapter 17 I already told about the Shepherd of Hermas, which very largely matched the copy of Hermas that Simonides published, and that Tischendorf himself edited, in 1856.


James Donaldson (1831-1915)


Earlier version

Hermas Summary

1856 - Simonides publishes Hermas
1857 - Tischendorf accuses this of being a "medieval retranslation"
1859 - Simonides begins to privately claim Sinaiticus involvement in productin
1861 - Simonides begins to publicly claim Sinaiticus involvement in production
1862 - Tischendorf publishes Hermas from Sinaiticus with many similar features
1860-1863 - Tischendorf retracts his accusations against the Simonides Hermas,
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Steven Avery

BCHF thread


In 1856, Simonides had published a Greek Hermas.

The first list of resources here will work with BCHF and then that will be tweaked, using the Tischendorf retraction page and other sources.


Summary of Hermas Greek Editions


1843 - Simonides date of Barnabas Publication in Smyrna

1845 - Uspensky (published 1856 ) sees Barnabas and Hermas with full Sinaiticus NT, no indication of truncation of Hermas


1856 - Codex Lipsiensis - Simonides Text and Controversies

Hermae Pastor Graece Ex Fragmentis Lipsiensibus Instituta Quaestione De Vero Graeci Textus Lipsiensis Fonte (1856) (German Edition)
https://play.google.com/books/reade...sec=frontcover&output=reader&hl=en&pg=GBS.PP7 (text visible online)


1857 - Tischendorf Accusation Edition

Patrum Apostolicorum Opera (1857)
"De Herma Graeco Lipsiensi"
Albert Dressel - editor
Tischendorf on Simonides p xliv-lv - Tischendorf edition 408-637

Literary Churchman review of above
"the great novelty of the volume is the Greek text of Hermas (continues)"


1857 Dressel review by Cyclopaedia 1891 - Tischendorf using Simonides text

Cyclopaedia of Biblical, Theological and Ecclesiastical Literature, Volume 4 (1891) -
1891 summary, highlight the aspects involving the Greek Hermas text:
John McClintock, James Strong

Of the Greek original we have nothing left but fragments ... The Greek text was at an early period translated into Latin, and, since the beginning of the 15th century, often published .... Of late years this tract has been the subject of more editing and literary criticism than almost any relic of the early Church. In 1857 Dressel published .... a Greek text of the Ποιμὴν , revised by Tischendorf. This text, it is claimed, was found in a, convent of Mount Athos by Simonides. Tischendorf considers it, however, only as a retranslation from the Latin into Greek, and places its origin in the Middle Ages. Tischendorf himself discovered, in the Codex Sinaiticus, the Greek text of book 1 of the Shepherd, and the first four chapters of book 2...

1859 - Tischendorf to Von Falkenstein

Journal of Sacred Literature
Leipziger Zeitung - April 17, 1859
Tischendorf from Cairo to Von Falkenstein - March 15, 1959.

Simonides confessedly brought a very perfect Greek text to Leipzig, part copied by him from a MS. at Mount Athos, and part upon three paper leaves of the fourteenth or fifteenth century. After this text was published in December 1855, and repeated soon after by me more accurately, considerable doubt arose about it, whether it was really ancient or a mediaeval translation from the Latin. I especially opposed the last view, and my opinion is confirmed by these leaves, at least 1000 years older, shewing that the Leipsig text had been derived from the original, but is corrupt, and that in consequence of a mediaeval use of the Latin.
The Scottish scholar James Donaldson noted that the Tischendorf hand-wave was ultra-dubious.

1860 Notitia - first Tischendorf pubilcation of Sinaiticus - retraction begins

Notitia editionis codicis Bibliorum Sinaitici : accedit catalogus codicum nuper ex oriente Petropolin perlatorum,
item Origenis Scholia in Proverbia Salomonis, partim nunc primum partim secundum atque emendatius edita (1860)
Constantine Tischendorf

"I am glad to be able to communicate that the Leipzig text is derived not from middle-age studies but from the old original text.. My opposite opinion is proved correct in so far as that the Leipzig text is disfigured by many corruptions, such as without doubt proceed from middle-age use of Latin."

The retraction is here on p. 45-46. Tischendorf had accused the Simonides Hermas, but found that embarrassing when it was time to publish the Sinai Hermas. The arguments made by him against the authenticity of the Simonides text could be adducible against Sinaiticus authenticity. (
A small footnote over two pages. I'll take a pic and bring it to this post.)


(upated within editions) - Tischendorf retraction


1863 Dressel - Tischendorf retracts his objection
Patrum apostolicorum opera by adhibitis praestantissimis editionibus, recensuit atque emenavit, notis illustravit, versione latina passim correcta, prolegomenis, indicibus Albertus Rud. Max. Dressel, aucta supplementis ad Barnabae epistolam et Hermae pastorem ex Tishendorfiana codicis sinaitici editione haustis. (1863)
Albert Dressel


James Donaldson (1831-1915)
Sir James Donaldson (26 April 1831, Aberdeen – 1915), was a Scottish classical scholar, and educational and theological writer.

1864 - Scottish Scholar James Donaldson says wait a minute!

A Critical History of Christian Literature and Doctrine: The apostolical fathers (1864)
James Donaldson

In 1856 appeared the first edition of a Greek text of the Pastor of Hermas, under the care of Anger and Dindorf. The manuscript from which it was taken was three leaves of a codex lately found in Mount Athos by Simonides, and a copy of all the rest except a small portion. In a short time, however, considerable doubts were thrown on the genuineness of this text, through a revelation of Simonides's forging practices made by a companion (footnote on Alexander Lycurgus/Lykourgus, referencing his book on Uranios https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_FU9ObWZ7_1MC ). Tischendorf's suspicions had also been aroused. On examining the manuscript, however, he believed it to be a genuine manuscript, and gave a new recension of it in Dressel's Apostolical Fathers. He also wrote a dissertation, showing that the Greek, though not forged, must have been a re-translation from the Latin. His arguments seemed to himself to be most convincing, and he remarks at the conclusion of his essay :

"Non deerunt quidem qui etiam tot argumentorum conjunctorum vim subterfugiant: nimirum sunt qui probabilitatis certique sensum aut natura non hubent aut studiis amiserunt, quique verum tanquam adversarium malunt convincere qtiam intesrro animo invenire."

"There will no doubt be individuals who will be able to elude the force of even so many arguments joined together, to wit, those who have naturally no perception of what can be proved and is certain, or who have lost this perception by their party feelings, and who prefer refuting the truth as if it were an adversary to finding it out with unbiased mind. p. 307-308"

"and nearly as much of the Greek of the Pastor of Hermas as had been given in the Simonides manuscripts"
My understanding of all this is that the first three pages from Simonides in his original 1856 publication were accepted as an authentic Greek manuscript by Tischendorf.

To the Sinaitic Bible which Tischendorf found is attached a portion of the Pastor of Hermas in Greek. The text of this portion is substantially the same as that given in the Athos manuscript. The variations are comparatively slight. And almost all the arguments that were adduced against the Athos manuscript are adducible against the Sinaitic. Tischendorf's opinion,however,changed on his finding the agreement between the two texts. And he repeats his belief that the Leipzig text (SA->the text of Simonides) is genuine in the Prolegomena to the Novum Testamentum Sinaiticum. The discovery of this manuscript does not however impair the force of the arguments which he employed ; and as they are in the main applicable to the Sinaitic codex, they compel us to reject the Greek text of Hermas given there as spurious.
Picture and discussion here:

1864 - Simonides shows 1843 Epistle of Barnabas as Smyrna Publication

Periplus of Hannon (1864)


1866 - Westcott Circular Handwave of Donaldson

A general survey of the History of the Canon of the New Testament, during the first four centuries
Brooke Foss Westcott

I have given the Greek text of the quotations from the Shepherd. The discovery of the Codex Sinaiticus has placed the substantial authenticity of Simonides' copy beyond all reasonable doubt. Dr Donaldson's arguments (I. p. 399) prove too much, for Cod. Sinait. dates from a period within 'the first five centuries of the Christian era.'

German And Latin Discussions related to Donaldson

Hermae pastor e novo testamento illustratus (1867)
Theodor Zahn

Der hirt des Hermas (1868)
Theodor Zahn

We had Zahn above referenced in 1874 by Donaldson.

Next comes a Latin section:

Pastor, Graece: assita versione Latina recentiore e codice Palatino (1877)
Adolf von Harnack, Oscar von Gebhardt


Discussions of Greek Hermas emphasizing Tischendorf Retraction - Hoole, Gregory, Church Review, Schaff

1870 Hoole Summary

Shepherd of Hermas (1870)
Charles Holland Hoole
Hermas .. The Greek original disappeared, and it was long known only in a Latin version. But a few years ago a Greek version of the greater part of Hermas was discovered by Simonides in Mount Athos. This is now called the Codex Lipsiensis. 1 The character of the discoverer caused it at first to be regarded with suspicion, and it was asserted by Tischendorf that it was in reality not the Greek original, but a translation from the Latin version into Greek, executed in the middle ages. The recently discovered Codex Sinaiticus, however, was found to contain a considerable portion of a Greek version of Hermas substantially the same as that of the Codex Lipsiensis and as the Codex Sinaiticus can hardly be put at a later date than 520 A.D., it can scarcely be doubted that the Greek version which it contains is the original of Hermas, as it cannot be supposed that the Greek version had then disappeared. The style of the Greek too is, on the whole, what might have been expected from the supposed date and authorship : Hellenistic, not entirely free from grammatical errors, by no means equal in power and dignity to the books of the New Testament, but simple and intelligible, and well adapted for popular reading.....

... 1 Tischendorf has retracted his objections to the Greek text of the Codex Lipsiensis since the discovery of the Codex Sinaiticus; Hilgenfeld and Canon Westcott accept the Greek as genuine. But it is attacked at length by Mr. Donaldson in his History of Christian Literature and Doctrine, vol. i. p. 309.
The Church Review, Volume 13 (1861)
The Sinaitic Codex of the Bible


"We conclude this portion of our inquiry with a reference to the light, thrown by the the Sinaitic Hermas upon the Greek text of Simonides, which Dr. Tischendorf now admits to have been a copy from the original, modified by a Latin Version, and not a medieval Greek retranslation of the Latin, as he supposed. This is important, because it relieves poor Simonides of one of the many sins laid to his charge."


James Donaldson digs deeper

The Apostolical Fathers (1874)
The Pastor of Hermas
James Donaldson

Details here:

"and nearly as much of the Greek of the Pastor of Hermas as had been given in the Simonides manuscripts." p. 386

1875 - Germans respond to Donaldson

Patrum apostolicorum opera. Textum recens., notis illustr., versione Lat. instruxit A.R.M.
Dressel. Ed. post Dresselianam alteram 3a. Recens. O. de Gebhardt, A. Harnack, T. Zahn (1875)


Puzzled by the 1843 Barnabas of Simonides

4. Donaldsonius (The Apostolical Fathers, Loud. 1874 p.315) scripsit: Simonides also printed an edition of' the entire text, an found in the Sinaitic, with notes; on the title-page of which the date is 1843 {?), and the place of publication Smyrna. Librum inspicere mihi non contigit

The Saturday Review of Politics, Literature, Science and Art, Vol 39 (1875)

Attempted response to Donaldson.


1876 - Athenaeum "explains" Barnabas 1843 as a unique forgery

The Athenaeum, Issues 2514-2539 - Jan, 1876

The editors (Gebhardt/Harnack) are puzzled by an assertion in Dr. Donaldsdon's 'Apostolic Fathers' on which we are able to throw some light. Dr. Donaldson mentions an edition of the Epistle of Barnabas, printed by Simonides, and containing the text as found in the Sinaitic Codex, but bearing the date 1843, and the place of publication Smyrna. The editors put a query at the date 1843. The date given, notwithstanding its apparent improbability, is given correctly, and the edition of Barnabas is one of the most curious of the many fabrications which Simonides devised. That Greek went to the trouble of printing at his own expense an edition of the entire Epistle of Barnabas, for the very purpose of putting the date 1843 upon it. He wished to make people believe that he had manuscripts of the entire Barnabas before Tischendorf found his famous codex. The title-page of the strange document states that the text of the Epistle of Barnabas is based on seven manuscripts. In the copy of it which Simonides gave to the writer of this article, he had altered the word ... and he had made several corrections in the Preface. Simonides was not content with printing the text he produced in attestation of the genuineness and date of his edition a newspaper of Smyrna, published in 1843, containing a long review of the work. The paper and the print of the newspaper looked uncommonly fresh, and, on subsequent inquiries at Smyrna, it was found that no such newspaper had ever existed, and that the printer whose name appeared at the bottom of it was also entirely unknown. Simonides had taken the trouble to fabricate his newspaper as well as the date of his edition. p. 53-54
Note that the Athenaeum was purporting to summarize the events of 12 years earlier, that had never been reported. The research since that time has shown that both the 1843 Barnabas, and the Star of the East section, were publications from 1843. The forgery accusation of the Athenaeum was nonsense. Beyond that, the relationship between the two texts can be discerned by looking at the footnotes! (essentially Sinaiticus + Gaspareos --> 1843 Barnabas).

More details can be seen at:

Bible Criticism and History Forum
Sinaiticus - Hermas, Barnabas linguistic, history anomalies - p. 2
Athenaeum magazine "explains" Simonides 1843 Barnabas

Bibliotheca Sacra (1876)
Caspar Ren� Gregory
This was followed by a contest about the text which Simonides had used for his Hermnas. Tischendorf insisted at first that it was a text made by retranslation from the Latin; but after he found the part of Hermas in the Sinaitic manuscript, he at once said that the text used by Simonides was from the original Greek, though corrupted by use of the middle age Latin text.
Gregory was a solid supporter of Tischendorf, in a sense his protege.


1877 - James Donaldson continues

Theological Review (1877)
The Shepherd of Hermas
Review of 5 books by James Donaldson

Oscar Gebhardt and Adolph Harnack's Hermas edition from the Apostolic Fathers series, Guilielmus Heyne on the dating of Hermas, Heinrich Behm on dating and authorship and more, George H. Shodde on the Ethiopic Hermas and Walter Cassels (Supernatural Religion). The last was actually only referenced en passant.

The Theological review (1877)
The New MS. of Clement of Rome
James Donaldson


1878 - Germans naively accept Athenaeum forgery explanation

Barnabae epistula: graece et latine : recensuerunt et illustraverunt Papiae quae supersunt, Presbyterorum reliquias ab Ireneo Servatas, Vetus Ecclesiae Romanae symbolum, Epistulam ad Diognetum (1878)

1884 - Schaff on Tischendorf Hermas retraction

History of the Christian Church, Volume II: Ante-Nicene Christianity. A.D. 100-325
Philip Schaff
https://books.google.com/books?id=Rqk8AAAAYAAJ&pg=PA678 (1884)
http://books.google.com/books?id=WTA2AQAAMAAJ&pg=PA678(1891, 3rd ed)
The older editions give only the imperfect Latin Version, first published by Faber Stapulensis (Par. 1513). Other Latin MSS. were discovered since. The Greek text (brought from Mt. Athos by Constantine Simonides, and called Cod. Lipsiensis was first published by R. Anger, with a preface by G. Dindorf (Lips. 1856); then by Tischendorf, in Dressels Patres Apost., Lips 1857 (p.572-637): again in the second ed. 1863, where Tischendorf, in consequence of the intervening discovery of the Cod. Sinaiticus retracted his former objections to the originality of the Greek Hermas from Mt. Athos, which he had pronounced a mediaeval retranslation from the Latin (see the Proleg., Appendix and Preface to the second ed.).... The texts from Mt. Athos and Mt. Sinai substantially agree.
1887 and various -

German responses - 1843 Barnabas - Donaldson linguistics

1888 - Lambros and Robinson Hermas collation

For additional background on the Mt. Athos Hermas leaves, see:

A collation of the Athos codex of the Shepherd of Hermas
Spyridōn Paulou Lambros, translated by Joseph Armitage Robinson


1888 - Lambros Cataloge of Athos MSS

Note that Lambros is referenced in the Farrer book. His Catalog of the Greek manuscripts on Mt. Athos, Vol 1 1895, Vol 2, 1900, p. 454, maybe p. 161, was an important confirmation of elements of the Simonides and Kallinikos history.


1901 - Amherst Papyri gives more insight on Hermas of early centuries.

Note that in this summary I am not going into the later discovery of Hermas papyri, such as the 1901 Amherst Papyri

The Amherst papyri: being an account of the Greek papyri in the collection of the Right Hon. Lord Amherst of Hackney, F. S. A. at Didlington hall, Norfolk (1902)
Grenfell and Hunt


1907 - James Anson Farrer notes historical corroboration of Kallinkos, Simonides and Benedict at Mt. Athos

"The coincidence seems almost more singular than can be accounted for by chance"
James Anson Farrer, Literary forgeries (1907), p. 60

Starting around 1861, Simonides was claiming publicly that his hand was involved in producing the Sinaiticus manuscript.

A key element of all Sinaiticus and Simonides discussions, especially Hermas and Barnabas.


1907 - 1843 Barnabas of Simonides still described as Sinait. Text (Richardson)

The Ante-Nicene fathers: translations of the writings of the fathers down to A.D. 325, Volume 10

1961 - Robert Kraft simply accepts Athenaum "forgery" claim

Barnabas, Smyrna 1843 - Robert Kraft - Gerogios D. Rodokanak
by Robert Alan Kraft
PhD Thesis (Harvard University) April 1961


New Finds of 1975 - was most of Hermas dumped because of textual embarrassment?

Then we have the New Finds of 1975, showing that the Codex Sinaiticus had in fact been the full text. Would the Sinaiticus controversies give Tischendorf a motive for truncating the text? (We now have some text from the end, which can be compared to Codex Lipsiensis from Simonides. Text that was not supposed to see the light of day.)
Uspensky saw Hermas in 1845, likely the full text, there was no indication that it was just the first sections.


Early Christian Manuscripts: Examples of Applied Method and Approach (2010)
The Egyptian Hermas: The Shepherd in Egypt before Constantine
Malcolm Choat, Rachel Yuen-Collingridge


Constantinos Simonidis in the Gennadius Library (2011)
Pasquale Massimo Pinto
http://www.academia.edu/899443/Constant ... us_Library

Pinto documents nespaper pages in the Journal "Star of the East" which reviewed Simonides 1843 Barnabas

2014 - Library of the Hellenic Parliament documents "Start of the East"

2014 - From research, Chris Pinto makes available "Start of the East" pages


This all leads into the analysis of the Scottish scholar, James Donaldson. (Also, in regard to Barnabas, the details of the 1843 review as well as the text.)

James Donaldson says that much of the opposition raised by Tischendorf is in fact adducible to the Sinaiticus ms, that linguistically the Hermas and Barnabas mss are not from the antiquity time supposed.

And the related questions regarding the history of the 1843 Barnabas publication.


Thus it would be interesting for someone skilled in German to extract the Tischendorf sections of attack and retraction. (Also there was various back and forth, e.g. Hilgenfeld contended for a later date for Sinaiticus while Uspensky was attacking it doctrinally, while Tischendorf had to respond to the Simonides assertions, including Tischendorf's not showing up in England with the ms as expected.)



James Donaldson, 1864, on the Tischendorf accusations and retraction

Above, we saw above that the Tischendorf retraction was 1863, since he was now publishing Sinaiticus with Hermas. James Donaldson was one of the top scholars on the ECW and church history and he thought that there was something fishy about the Tischendorf turnabout. Scholarship was being sacrificed to Sinaiticus expediency.

Donaldson is quoting and translating from the Tischendorf section where we referenced the 14th century conclusion above on p. lv. The section quoted here is from the bottom paragraph of p. liv.
Donaldson is emphasizing the sureness of Tischendorf in 1857. This text of Simonides could not possible be early Greek. James Donaldson - Tischendorf retraction is not evidence-based

Let's continue with Donaldson, 1864.Steven
Strong and clear words. Tischendorf demonstrated that the Hermas of Simonides was not a 4th century Greek ms. The same proof applies to the Codex Sinaiticus Hermas. It is spurious, ie. it is not a 4th century document.

SA: We have the Prolegomena from 1863 in the text above. There was, apparently, an earlier than 1863 mini-retraction ("my opposite opinion") which we see referenced by the church review in 1861.

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New member
Is all this saying that there is no authentic "Epistle of Barnabas"? that all copies of Barnabas (in English, at least) are translations of a spurious forged text from the 1800s? Or that they are all taken from the Sinaiticus text? In other words, is there such a thing as an "Epistle of Barnabas" dating from the early post-apostolic era? I do not ask if Barnabas himself wrote an epistle, or if the "Epistle of Barnabas" was written by him. I know it is not. I am however interested in finding a realistic date for it. It is important to my current research on early first century Jewish sectarianism, specifically the "Enochian Judaism" stream represented by such things as the "Book of Jubilees" and the various "Testaments of the Patriarchs".

Steven Avery

Is all this saying that there is no authentic "Epistle of Barnabas"? that all copies of Barnabas (in English, at least) are translations of a spurious forged text from the 1800s? Or that they are all taken from the Sinaiticus text? In other words, is there such a thing as an "Epistle of Barnabas" dating from the early post-apostolic era? I do not ask if Barnabas himself wrote an epistle, or if the "Epistle of Barnabas" was written by him. I know it is not. I am however interested in finding a realistic date for it. It is important to my current research on early first century Jewish sectarianism, specifically the "Enochian Judaism" stream represented by such things as the "Book of Jubilees" and the various "Testaments of the Patriarchs".
The date has been hotly debated, but I think it is generally considered pretty early, second century, I can check a bit more.

The issue here was only how much Greek Barnabas was extant and where. The Sinaiticus Barnabas was quite similar to what Simonides published in 1843. The question arises if some of the Greek was Latin retroversion. Even if it was, that does not make Barnabas late, only that the extant Greek manuscripts were later.