Phoebadius of Agen

Steven Avery

Administrator
Introduction to Phoebadius

Phoebadius of Agen
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoebadius_of_Agen

Phoebadius of Agen (also, Phaebadius, Foegadius, or, in French, Phébade; died ca. 392) was a Catholic bishop of the fourth century. At the Council of Ariminum in 359 and other councils, he was a supporter of Nicaean orthodoxy. He wrote several works, including a treatise against the Arians which still survives.

In 357 Phoebadius published a treatise against the Arians. Commenting on this Liber contra Arianos, Butler remarks that it is "written in so masterly a manner, with such solidity, justness, and close reasoning, as to make us regret the loss of his other works."[4] Phoebadius figured prominently at the Council of Rimini in 359, where, along with Servatius of Tongeren, he advocated for the Nicaean position against the Arians.[4]

Butler, Alban (1821). The lives of the fathers, martyrs, and other principal saints. 4. London: John Murphy. pp. 273–274.

Fourth Century Christianity
Phoebadius of Agen
https://www.fourthcentury.com/phoebadius-of-agen/

An introduction to the creeds and to the Te Deum (1899)
Andrew Eubank Burn
http://www.katapi.org.uk/CreedsIntro/master.html?http://www.katapi.org.uk/CreedsIntro/Ch8.htm
https://books.google.com/books?id=ONpIAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA214

==========================

Heavenly Witnesses Allusion

Liber Contra Arianos
https://www.fourthcentury.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Wessel-Phoebadius.pdf

KJVToday
http://www.kjvtoday.com/home/the-father-the-word-and-the-holy-ghost-in-1-john-57#TOC-Phoebadius
Phoebadius in 359 AD quotes the Comma:

"Sic alius a Filio Spiritus; sicut alius a patre Filius. Sic tertia in Spiritu ut in Filio secunda persona, unus tamen omnia quia tres unum sunt" (Contra Arianos XXVII: 4)
"The other Spirit comes from the Son just as the other Son comes from the Father. So the Spirit is the third as the Son is the second person. But the sum is one, for the three are one."

Placed on Wikipedia some years back.

Phoebadius of Agen

Similarly, Jerome wrote of Phoebadius of Agen in his Lives of Illustrious Men. "Phoebadius, bishop of Agen, in Gaul, published a book Against the Arians. There are said to be other works by him, which I have not yet read. He is still living, infirm with age."[SUP][32][/SUP] William Hales looks at Phoebadius:

Phoebadius, A. D. 359, in his controversy with the Arians, Cap, xiv. writes, "The Lord says, I will ask of my Father, and He will give you another advocate." (John xiv. 16) Thus, the Spirit is another from the Son as the Son is another from the Father; so, the third person is in the Spirit, as the second, is in the Son. All, however, are one God, because the three are one, (tres unum sunt.) … Here, 1 John v. 7, is evidently connected, as a scriptural argument, with John xiv. 16. [33]

Griesbach argued that Phoebadius was only making an allusion to Tertullian,[34] and his unusual explanation was commented on by Reithmayer.[35][36]
32 - Jerome, Lives of Illustrious Men, translated by Ernest Cushing Richardson, footnote: "Bishop 353, died about 392".

33 - William Hales, Inspector, Antijacobin Review, Sabellian Controversy, Letter XII 1816, p. 590. "Denique Dominus: Petam, inquit, a Patre meo et alium advocatum dabit vobis … Sic alius a Filio Spiritus, sicut a Patre Filius. Sic tertia in Spiritu, ut in Filio secunda persona: unus tamen Deus omnia, tres unum sunt. Phoebadius, Liber Contra Arianos, (6) Hug. Einleitung, 4. h. § 22.
34 - Griesbach, Diatribe, p. 700

35 - Introduction historique et critique aux libres de Nouveau Testament 1861, p.564.

36 - In dismissing Phoebadius in this fashion, Griesbach was following Porson, whose explanation began, "Phoebadius plainly imitates Tertullian…and therefore, is not a distinct evidence", Letters to Archdeacon Travis, 1790, p. 247.

==========================

Additional Background

James Snapp made some helpful comments about Phoebadius and how quotes are neglected today.


 
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Steven Avery

Administrator
historical debate

Research on the Early Church Writers

Ungedruckte, unbeachtete und wenig beachtete Quellen zur geschichte des Taufsymbols und der Glaubensregel, Vol 2 (1869)
Carl Paul Caspari
https://books.google.com/books?id=gRtAAAAAcAAJ&pg=PA165

The Faith of the Early Fathers, Vol 1 (1970)
William A. Jurgens
https://books.google.com/books?id=l62q-d4Wi20C&pg=PA391

Historical Debate on Heavenly Witnesses

An Introduction to the Critical Study and Knowledge of the Holy Scriptures, Volume 4 (1825)
Horne
https://books.google.com/books?id=_iSt5LY1FXsC&pg=RA1-PA451
referencing Nolan's inquiry.


(4.) Contemporary with this writer (Marcus Celedensis) was Phoebadius, bishop of Agen, a. d. 459: who, in his controversy with the Arians, writes,

“The Lord says, I will ask of my Father, and he will give you another advocate." (John xiv. 16.) Thus, the Spirit is another from the Son ; as the Son is another from the Father: so the third person is in the Spirit, as the second is in the Son. All, however, are one God, because the three are one.‘"2

In this passage 1 John v. 7. is evidently connected, as a scriptural argument, with John xiv. 16.

Additions
Prudent Maran (1751)
Schmidt
Knittel
Travis
Griesbach
Nolan
William Hales
Burgess
Orme
Turton
Porter
Davidson
Irish Quarterly Review
Kenrick
Reithmayr
Boston Review
Daniel M'Carthy
Michaelis
Irish Ecclesiastical Review
Huther
Lunemann Dusterdieck
Meyer
Adam Hamilton, Dublin Review
Kretzmann

And check research emails
 
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Steven Avery

Administrator
From Mike Ferrando, can be integrated with above

I John 5 7 : Phoebadius of Agen (d. 392), Bishop of Gaul : Liber contra Arianos : "tres unum sunt"
Sic tertia in Spiritu, ut in Filio secunda persona: unus tamen Deus omnia, tres unum sunt.
And just as the Son is the second person [of the Godhead], so also the Spirit is the third. Nevertheless, the sum (omnia) is one God, because the three are one.

===SOURCE:

Phoebadius of Agen (also, Phaebadius, Foegadius, or, in French, Phébade; died ca. 392) was a Catholic bishop of the fourth century. At the Council of Ariminum in 359 and other councils, he was a supporter of Nicaean orthodoxy. He wrote several works, including a treatise against the Arians which still survives.
>>en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoebadius_of_Agen

===SOURCE:
Jerome (340-420 AD)
De Viris Illustribus (On Illustrious Men) : PL 23, 0703-704 to 705-706
108. Phoebadius (d. 392)
Phoebadius, bishop of Agen, in Gaul, published a book Against the Arians. There are said to be other works by him, which I have not yet read. He is still living, infirm with age.
==
Translated by Ernest Cushing Richardson. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 3. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. (Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892.) Revised and edited for New Advent by Kevin Knight. <www.newadvent.org/fathers/2708.htm>.

===SOURCE:
CAP CVIII. Phoebadius, Agenni Galliarum episcopus (d. 392)
Phoebadius, Agenni Galliarum episcopus, edidit contra Arianos librum. Dicuntur et eius alia esse opuscula, quae necdum legi. Vivit usque hodie decrepita senectute. (0704B)
Σοιβάδιος Ἀγενοῦ τῆς κατὰ Γαλλίας ἐπίσκοπος, ἐξέδωκε, κατὰ Ἀρειανῶν τεῦχος. Λέγονται αὐτοῦ καὶ ἕτερα εἶναι σπουδάσματα, οἷς οὔπω ἐνέτυχον. Μέχρι νῦν ζῇ ἐν ἐσχάτῳ γήρᾳ διάγων.
==
Hieronymus Stridonensis (340-420 AD)
De viris illustribus (On Illustrious Men) : PL 23, 0703-704 to 705-706
Migne Latina, PL 23, 703-704 to 705-706
>>books.google.com/books?id=4fgUAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA703

===SOURCE:
Phoebadius of Agen (d. 392), Bishop of Gaul : Liber contra Arianos, PL 20, 0030A
Chapter XXII. Who are those that believe the Father suffered? Who are the Arians (what do they believe)? What is the Rule of Faith?

[PAGE 60]

1. Therefore, we need to firmly hold to this doctrine (ratio) as it crawls along a steep and narrow path, with rugged places encompassing it on this side and that. [Seemingly] level and easy-to-travel (facilia) places rise up below, but291 they are obscured by devilish deceit so that they plunge [men] into the ruin of death.
2. For if we label the one God as a singular person (singulariter), excluding any terminology of a second person, [in essence] we are approving the madness of that heresy which defends [the belief] that the Father himself suffered. And if we admit that [our] number [is arrived at] by separating the two (cum divisione), then we are linked to the Arians, who make a new God from God and defend [the belief] that his substance was formed out of nothing.
3. Therefore, as we have said, we need to hold on to the rule of faith (regula) which confesses that the Son is in the Father, and the Father is in the Son (Jn. 14:20); this retains [the truth] that [the Son] is one substance in two persons, yet acknowledges this arrangement of divinity. Thus the Father is God and the Son is God, since God the Son is within God the Father.
4. If anyone is offended at this, let him also hear us say that the Spirit is from God, since [God] not only has a second person in the Son, but also a third [person] in the Holy Spirit. Our Lord speaks to this: I will ask of my Father and he will give you another Counselor. (Jn 14:16)
5. Just as another – the Son – comes from the Father, so also another – the Spirit – comes from the Son. And just as the Son is the second person [of the Godhead],

[PAGE 61]

so also the Spirit is the third. Nevertheless, the sum (omnia) is one God, because the three are one.
6. This [truth] we believe, this [truth] we hold fast, because we have received it from the prophets. This is what that the Gospel writers have spoken to us. This is what the Apostles handed down to us, and this is what the martyrs confessed in the throes of their suffering (in passione) And we also cling to this [truth] with minds [controlled] by faith. Even if an angel from heaven should preach against it, let him be condemned. (Gal 1:8)
==

Wessel, Kurt (2008). "Phoebadius of Agen: Liber Contra Arianos" (PDF). University of Florida. , p. 60-61
>>www.fourthcentury.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/Wessel-Phoebadius.pdf

===SOURCE:
Phoebadius Aginensis (d. 392), Bishop of Gaul : Liber contra Arianos, PL 20, 0030A
CAPUT XXII. Quid Patropassiani? quid Ariani? Fidei regula quae?
1. Tenenda est igitur ratio quae per arduum et angustum tramitem repit, circumiacentibus hinc et inde praeruptis quae zabolica fraude caecata plana et facilia submittunt, ut in ruinam mergant excessus. (0029D)
2. Nam si unum Deum singulariter nominamus, excludentes vocabulum secundae personae, furorem eius haeresis approbamus, quae ipsum asserit Patrem passum. (0030A) Si admittimus numerum cum divisione, iungimur cum Arianis, qui factum a Deo Deum, novamque asserunt ex nihilo substantiam constitisse.
3. Tenenda est igitur, ut diximus, regula quae Filium in Patre, Patrem in Filio confitetur (Ioan. XIV, 20); quae unam in duabus personis substantiam servans, dispositionem divinitatis agnoscit. Igitur Pater Deus, et Filius Deus: quia in Patre Deo Filius Deus.
4. Hoc si cui scandalum facit, audiat a nobis Spiritum esse de Deo; quia illi cui est in Filio secunda persona, est et tertia in Spiritu sancto. Denique Dominus: Petam, inquit, a Patre meo et alium advocatum dabit vobis (Ibid., 16).
5. Sic alius a Filio Spiritus, sicut a Patre Filius. Sic tertia in Spiritu, ut in Filio secunda persona: unus tamen Deus omnia, tres unum sunt. (0030B)
6. Hoc credimus, hoc tenemus, quia hoc accepimus a prophetis: hoc nobis Evangelia locuta sunt: hoc apostoli tradiderunt: hoc martyres passione confessi sunt: in hoc mentibus fidei etiam haeremus, contra quod etiamsi angelus de coelo annuntiaverit, anathema sit (Gal. I, 8).
==
Migne Latina PL 20, 29C-30B : CCSL LXIV, 1985, p. 23-52
>>books.google.com/books?id=0HjYAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA30
 
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Steven Avery

Administrator
Sept 2021

Phoebadius of Agen (d. 392)
• Phoebadius of Agen (also, Phaebadius, Foegadius, or, in French, Phébade; died ca. 392) was a Catholic bishop of the
fourth century. At the Council of Ariminum in 359 and other councils, he was a supporter of Nicaean orthodoxy. He wrote
several works, including a treatise against the Arians which still survives. Phoebadius was a Gaul by birth.[1] It seems
likely that he was born in the province of Aquitania, since Sulpicius Severus refers to him as Foegadius noster ("our"
Foegadius, a variant spelling of Phoebadius's name).[2] He may have even been born in Agen, where he was bishop.[1]

When he became bishop is not known. It was very likely after 347, since he is not listed among the Gallic bishops who
were present at the Council of Serdica in that year. In 357 Phoebadius published a treatise against the Arians.
Commenting on this Liber contra Arianos, Butler remarks that it is "written in so masterly a manner, with such solidity,
justness, and close reasoning, as to make us regret the loss of his other works."[4] Phoebadius figured prominently at the
Council of Rimini in 359, where, along with Servatius of Tongeren, he advocated for the Nicaean position against the
Arians.[4] When ambiguity in the creed was later discovered by Phoebadius, he disavowed the council and advocated
against its authority.[4] He was a friend of Hilary of Poitiers, with whom he collaborated in fighting the influence of
Arianism in Gaul.[5] Phoebadius attended several other councils after Ariminum. He was present at the Council of Paris in
360,[4], at the Council of Valence convened by the emperor Valentinian I in 374, and at the Council of Saragossa
convened by his son and successor Valentinian II in 380. The year of his death is not known, but he was still living in 392.
That is the year when Jerome wrote his work De viris illustribus, which mentions that Phoebadius was alive, although of
an advanced age. (Phoebadius of Agen. Wikipedia. <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoebadius_of_Agen>)

• Phoebadius, bishop of Agen, in Gaul, published a book Against the Arians. There are said to be other works by him,
which I have not yet read. He is still living, infirm with age. (Jerome. 108. Phoebadius. De Viris Illustribus - On Illustrious
Men. NPNF02 vol 3.)

HIT:

● Book Against the Arians. Thus the Spirit is other than the Son, just as the Son is other than the Father. Thus the
third is the Spirit, as the second person is the Son: and so all are one God because the three are one.
(Phoebadius. Book Against the Arians. Chapter 22. Translated in Ayres, Augustine and the Trinity, 2014, p. 98)

○ Latin: Liber contra Arianos. Sic alius a Filio Spiritus, sicut alius a Patre Filius. Sic tertia in Spiritu, ut in
Filio secunda persona: unus tamen Deus omnia quia tres unum sunt. (Phoebadius, Agenni Galliarum
episcopus. Liber contra Arianos. CAPUT XXII. CCSL 64:51; Migne Latina, PL 20.30A)

Comment:
[Ben David] Phoebadius quotes it [I John 5:7] about the middle of the fourth century. Now, if nothing more was added, I
should have concluded, with full confidence, that this writer alluded to the last clause of the disputed text; because no
other passage existed which justified such an assertion. Accordingly he subjoins his reason for saying, that these three
persons are one God, "Quia tres unum sunt." The causa "quia" leaves no doubt that the succeeding words ["the three are
one"] are not an inference, as is supposed in Tertullian, but a scriptural quotation, which carried in it a proof of the
assertion preceding it. (Ben David, Letters to the Editor in the Monthly Repository, vol 21, 1826, p. 276)
 
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