Speculum

Steven Avery

Administrator
Witness of God is Greater

Augustine Codex Speculum (circa 425 AD)
The Codex Speculum or Speculum Ps-Augustine, designated by m, is a 5th-century Latin manuscript of the New Testament. The text, written on vellum, is a version of the old Latin. The manuscript contains passages from all the books of the New Testament except 3 John, Hebrews, and Philemon on 154 parchment leaves.[1] It also has a citation from the Epistle to the Laodiceans.[2] The Latin text of the codex is a representative of the Western text-type in itala recension.[3] The text of the manuscript was published by Cardinal Mai in 1843.[2][3] Currently it is housed at the Saint Cross monastery (Sessorianus) in Rome.[1] (Codex Speculum. Wikipedia. <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Codex_Speculum>)

[Wiseman] The work [St. Augustine's Speculum] which we are considering consists of upwards of one hundred heads, including the most important points of Christian belief and practice. Upon each of these subjects all the texts of the Old and New Testaments are given, without a single remark or illustration. In the main, the work is nearly the same as was published under the title of St. Augustine's Speculum, by Jerome Vignier." But it differs in one most important particular, that the text used in our manuscript is not the version of St. Jerome in the Old, nor his correction in the New [PAGE 14] Testament, but the old Vulgate found in the quotations of the Fathers, and collected in the great works of Nobilius, Bianchini, and Sabbatier. It in fact supplies many lacunae in the latter invaluable work, and is therefore a precious addition to our stores of sacred criticism. Indeed, the active and intelligent librarian of Santa Croce is preparing the entire work for publication, chiefly with a view to amending and improving our text of the ancient Vulgate." The manuscript itself is a quarto on vellum : the character is uncial and square, resembling in form and size the Latin of the Codex Bezae or Cambridge MS. of the New Testament. It is, on the whole, beautifully written, and one must be cautious not to judge it from the specimen given by Bianchini,” whose facsimiles, from not being traced, will be often found incorrect." There can be no danger in attributing it to the sixth or seventh century. A fac-simile of it is prefixed to this essay. To come now to the most important point; this work quotes the text of the Heavenly Witnesses, as a dogmatical proof of the Trinity. (Wiseman, "Two Letters on 1 John v. 7, commonly called the Three Witnesses: Letter 1" in Essays on Various Subjects, 1853, vol 1, p. 13-14)

HITS:
● Speculum Chapter 1. And again in that place, "Because there are three that give testimony in earth, the spirit, the water, and the blood: and these three are one in Christ Jesus. And three there are that give testimony in heaven, the Father, the Word and the Spirit and these three are one." (Speculum: Liber de divinis scripturis. Chapter I., CSEL 12:314; Mai 1852: p. 6)

○ Latin: Item illic: Quoniam tres sunt qui testimonium dicunt in terra, spiritus, aqua et sanguis: et hii tres unum sunt in christo iesu. et tres sunt qui testimonium dicunt in caelo, pater, uerbum et spiritus: et hii tres unum sunt. (Speculum: Liber de divinis scripturis. Chapter I, CSEL 12:314; Mai
1852: PAGE 6)

● Speculum Chapter 3. Again in Epistle 1 of John: "The Spirit is the who delivers the witness, because the Spirit is the truth." Again in that place, "Three there are who bear witness in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Spirit, and these three are one." (Augustine, Speculum: Liber de divinis scripturis. Chapter III, CSEL 12:325-326; Mai 1852, p. 9-10)

○ Latin: Item iohannes in epistula I: Spiritus est qui testimonium reddit, quia spiritus est ueritas. Item illic: Tres sunt qui testimonium dicunt in caelo, pater, uerbum et spiritus, et hii tres unum sunt. (Augustine, Speculum: Liber de divinis scripturis. Chapter III, CSEL 12:325-326; Mai 1852, p. 9-10)
 
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Steven Avery

Administrator
Grantley - RGA p. 30

Secondly, it has often been claimed that Augustine cited the comma in a work called Speculum, but this claim is based on a confusion between two treatises called Speculum, sometimes found together in the same manuscripts, only one of which—Speculum “Quis ignorat”, the one that does not contain the comma—was written by the great African Father.35

35 The presence of the comma in the Speculum, first publicised in two letters published by Nicholas (later cardinal) Wiseman in 1832 and 1833 (repr. in Wiseman, 1853, 1:5-70), has caused some confusion, since there are two treatises of this name attributed to Augustine, both of which are included in Weihrich’s edition in CSEL 12: the Speculum “Quis ignorat” and the Speculum “Audi Israhel”.

Speculum “Quis ignorat”


Only the first of these—preserved in Munich, BSB clm 14513 (ninth century); Chartres ms 33 (ninth century); Sankt Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek ms 137 (tenth century); Vatican, BAV cod. Pal. 198 (tenth or eleventh century); Paris, BnF ms. lat. 2473 (thirteenth century)—is actually by Augustine. (When Erasmus came to include the Speculum “Quis ignorat” in his edition of Augustine’s works, printed by Froben in 1528, he even called the authenticity of that work into question.)

The Speculum “Audi Israhel”—preserved in Rome, Biblioteca della Basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, ms 58 (codex Sessorianus, eighth or ninth century); Paris, BnF ms lat. 6400G (codex Floriacensis, fourth to seventh century, also known as ms h, Beuron 55, fragmentary); Avranches ms 87 (ninth century); Paris BnF ms lat. 15082 (twelfth century); Paris, BnF ms. lat. 2977A (eleventh or twelfth century); Paris, BnF ms nouv. acq. 256 (twelfth century); and in abridged versions in Paris, BnF ms lat. 4/42 (codex Aniciensis), formerly in Le Puy-en-Velay; and Paris, BnF ms lat. 9380 (ninth century), 338-346—contains a selection of scriptural passages organised under a number of doctrinal heads.

There are a number of reasons to doubt that this work was compiled by Augustine: it uses a different biblical text from that found in Augustine’s other works; it quotes from the ps.-Pauline Epistle to the Laodiceans, which Augustine rejected; and it employs the Western order of the Gospels (Matthew, John, Luke, Mark), which Augustine likewise avoided.

Further, see Weihrich, 1881; Weihrich’s introduction to CSEL 12; and Sanday, 1890, who question some of Wiseman’s claims. In any case, the text of the comma cited in the Speculum “Audi Israhel”, CSEL 12:325-326, reads: Spiritus est qui testimonium reddit, quia spiritus est ueritas. Item illic: Tres sunt qui testimonium dicunt in cælo, pater, uerbum et spiritus, et hii tres unum sunt. The transmission is not consistent in the mss; Avranches 87, Paris 15082 and Paris 2977A read: “Spiritus est qui dicit in cælo pater uerbum et spiritus et hii tres unum sunt.”
 
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Steven Avery

Administrator
Léopold Victor Delisle - (1826-1910)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Léopold_Victor_Delisle

History & Literature Of Christ (2013)
by Pierre De Labriolle
https://books.google.com/books?id=rVHYAQAAQBAJ&pg=PT692
1655706259602.png


Studia Biblica: Essays in Biblical Archæology and Criticism and Kindred Subjects, Volume 1 (1885)
https://books.google.com/books?id=pStVAAAAMAAJ&pg=PA130
1655706510673.png


"Le Plus Ancien MS. du Miroir de St. Augustin"

Second Catalogue of the Library of the Peabody Institute of the City of Baltimore, Including the Additions Made Since 1882, Part 1 (1896)
https://books.google.com/books?id=dklFAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA216
1655706718591.png

"Le Plus Ancien MS. du Miroir de St. Augustin"
10 pp. (Biblioth. Ecole des Charles v. 45, 1884 p. 478 )
 
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Steven Avery

Administrator
BVDB
https://www.tapatalk.com/groups/bibleversiondiscussionboard/speculum-or-latin-ms-m-t3934.html

Metzger in the 3rd and 4th edition of the "Text of the NT" dates Speculum as 8th or 9th century (p. 75 and 104-105 respectively). The UBS4 and the NA27 date Speculum to the 5th century. Metzger's "Early Versions of the NT" does the same. Does the actual date of the manuscript in our possession date to the 8th or 9th century while the (original) work itself dates to the 5th century?

On page 295 of "Early Versions of the NT" Dr. Metzger states that Latin "m" is no longer considered OL but rather a mixed text (that is OL and vg). Would this refer to the original work or the manuscript itself?

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Scrivener, Plain Introduction, 4th ed., 1:48-49, makes it clear that the "Speculum" was "ascribed to St. Augustine" (thus apparently the 5th century claim), but the earliest manuscript of this document seems to be "the Sessorian MS. (no. 58) of the eighth or ninth century".

Aland and Aland, Text of the New Testament, p. 219 point out that it was "ascribed to Augustine for reasons unknown," which is why it today is considered as from Ps-Augustine.

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Thanks for this info. I was using the 3rd edition which is lacking this information. Scrivener's book is still very valuable. This information (the date of the existing manuscript for the Speculum) is not readily available.

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Steven Avery

Scrivener actually gives more salient information p. 258, helpful albeit still rudimentary.

m. This letter indicates the readings extracted by Mai (Spicilegium Romanum, 1843, Tom. ix. pp. 61—86) from a " Speculum" [vi or vu] which, has been ascribed to Augustine, and is unique for containing extracts from the whole 1ST. T. except St Mark, 3 John, Hebrews, and Philemon. It is in the Monastery of Santa Croce, or Bibliotheca Sessoriana (No. 58) at Rome. "Wiseman drew attention to it in his celebrated " Two Letters," 1835 (see p. 255), because it contains 1 John v. 7 in two different places. Both he and Mai furnish facsimiles. This "Speculum" (published in full by Mai, Patrum Nova Collectio, Yol. i. pt. 2, 1852) consists of extracts from both Testaments, arranged in chapters under various heads or topics.
What Scrivener discusses on p. 255 is a section where Wiseman demonstrates, among other things, that the Sessoriana Speculum quotes the African Bible text as used by Augustine. Augustine also used an Italian text and was generally adverse to the Vulgate of Jerome.
The Aland comment "reasons unknown" is humorous in its ignorance and/or deception. The type of hokum you expect from Aland or Metzger or Wallace.

Thanks for this info. I was using the 3rd edition which is lacking this information. Scrivener's book is still very valuable. This information (the date of the existing manuscript for the Speculum) is not readily available.

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Steven Avery

Scrivener actually gives more salient information p. 258, helpful albeit still rudimentary.

m. This letter indicates the readings extracted by Mai (Spicilegium Romanum, 1843, Tom. ix. pp. 61—86) from a "Speculum" [vi or vu] which, has been ascribed to Augustine, and is unique for containing extracts from the whole 1ST. T. except St Mark, 3 John, Hebrews, and Philemon. It is in the Monastery of Santa Croce, or Bibliotheca Sessoriana (No. 58) at Rome. "Wiseman drew attention to it in his celebrated " Two Letters," 1835 (see p. 255), because it contains 1 John v. 7 in two different places. Both he and Mai furnish facsimiles. This "Speculum" (published in full by Mai, Patrum Nova Collectio, Yol. i. pt. 2, 1852) consists of extracts from both Testaments, arranged in chapters under various heads or topics.

What Scrivener discusses on p. 255 is a section where Wiseman demonstrates, among other things, that the Sessoriana Speculum quotes the African Bible text as used by Augustine. Augustine also used an Italian text and was generally adverse to the Vulgate of Jerome.

The Aland comment "reasons unknown" is humorous in its ignorance and/or deception. The type of hokum you expect from Aland or Metzger or Wallace.

To start you can simply read the Nicholas Wiseman section. And you can note the comment by Possidius, the biographer of Augustine, that he was working on such a work at the time of his death, as mentioned by Sanday, who also mentions that the Preface is quoted in the 6th century by Eugippius.

Since Aland did not do any homework, or decided to hide the history, you can also look at the placement of the Speculum de Scriptura in Augustine's writings by scholars who specialize on Augustine, like Mary T. Clark's work in 2005 .

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Maybe it is claimed there were Vulgate readings, but that may not be correct. I will keep my eyes open. Augustine would likely not use Vulgate vs. Old Latin, in general.
 
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Steven Avery

Administrator
Grantley
The Speculum “Audi Israhel”—preserved in ... Paris, BnF ms lat. 6400G (codex Floriacensis, fourth to seventh century, also known as ms h, Beuron 55, fragmentary);

This might be an error. Research in progress.
 

Steven Avery

Administrator
Metzger - Early Versions
The Vulgate is a revision according to a Greek text which was predominantly Alexandrian, but which nevertheless presented also several readings of the Koine and the Western texts. The Latin Vorlage stood close to the D-type with a mixture from the later stage of the I-type (pscudo-Augustinian Speculum, MS. 86, and especially MS. 61) .2 p. 359


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p. 299
 

Steven Avery

Administrator
Corbie ms. 13174

Erasmus and Froben


Wiseman - 1835
Cardinal Mai - 1852

Orme

Tischendorf


Reifferscheid, Karl Wilhelm August (1835-1887)

Zeigler

Reusch

Weihrich 1881
two treatises of this name attributed to Augustine, both of which are included in Weihrich’s edition in CSEL 12: the Speculum “Quis ignorat” and the Speculum “Audi Israhel”. - Grantley


Daniel McCarthy

Irish Quarterly Review
p. 154 156 158

Scrivener

Abbot -
Gregory
Orme

Delisle - 1884

Berger - 1893

Belsheim - 1899

Brooke 1912

Ropes - 1915

Fischer

Metzger - Early Versions

Aland
Apparatuses


JSTORE - 1954

Mary Twibill Clark- (1913-2014)
2005
https://books.google.com/books?id=1J3yD_H-ZOEC&pg=PR18

Grantley McDonald
- check BCEME

Paul Van Geest - 2018
The authenticity of Augustine's Speculum and an unknown reason for its composition — Tilburg University Research Portal
https://research.tilburguniversity....augustines-speculum-and-an-unknown-reason-for

Speculum “Quis ignorat” - Augustine
Munich, BSB clm 14513 (ninth century);
Chartres ms 33 (ninth century);
Sankt Gallen, Stiftsbibliothek ms 137 (tenth century);
Vatican, BAV cod. Pal. 198 (tenth or eleventh century);
Paris, BnF ms. lat. 2473 (thirteenth century)

If some mss. are supposed to have both ... which ones?



The Speculum “Audi Israhel”—preserved in
Rome, Biblioteca della Basilica di Santa Croce in Gerusalemme, ms 58 (codex Sessorianus, eighth or ninth century);
Is this next one correct?
Paris, BnF ms lat. 6400G (codex Floriacensis, fourth to seventh century, ms h, Beuron 55, fragmentary);
Avranches ms 87 (ninth century);
Paris BnF ms lat. 15082 (twelfth century);
Paris, BnF ms. lat. 2977A (eleventh or twelfth century);
Paris, BnF ms nouv. acq. 256 (twelfth century);
and in abridged versions in
Paris, BnF ms lat. 4/42 (codex Aniciensis), formerly in Le Puy-en-Velay; and
Paris, BnF ms lat. 9380 (ninth century), 338-346—



2 Libraries
 
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