Abraham Calovius - Cyril of Alexandria, Granville Sharp Titus 2:13

Steven Avery

Abraham Calovius (1612-1686)
Abraham Calovius (also Abraham Calov or Abraham Kalau; 16 April 1612 – 25 February 1686) was a Lutheran theologian, and was one of the champions of Lutheran orthodoxy in the 17th century. He was born in Mohrungen (Morąg), Ducal Prussia, a fief of the Crown of Poland. After studying at Königsberg, in 1650 he was appointed professor of theology at Wittenberg, where he afterwards became general superintendent and primarius.[1] Calovius opposed the Catholics, Calvinists and Socinians, and in particular attacked the syncretism of his bitter enemy, George Calixtus.[1] While Calixtus affirmed that the Apostles' Creed was an adequate definition of faith, Calovius rather held that one must believe every part of revealed truth in order to gain salvation. As a writer of polemics Calovius had few equals. His chief dogmatic work, Systema Iocorum theologicorum, (12 volumes, 1655–1677) represents the climax of Lutheran scholasticism. He produced a popular commentary on Martin Luther's translation of the Bible, "die deutsche Bibel," today known as the Calov Bible.[2] He also wrote a much larger professional exegetical work on the entire Bible called "Biblia Illustrata." It is written from the point of view of a very strict belief in inspiration, his object being to refute the statements made by Hugo Grotius in his Commentaries.[1] Calovius died in Wittenberg.
(Abraham Calovius. Wikipedia. <en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abraham_Calovius>)

Steven Avery

Nathaniel Ellsworth Cornwall

Yet while Calovius, in his commentary of several folio volumes written in Latin, give an excellent summary of the ancient testimony to the genuineness of I. John v.7, his name is not mentioned by Hartwell Home, or Lange in their lists of writers on that question. Surely this omission, added to their superficial view of Vigilius in which they wholly ignore Idacius, makes their treatment of that question very defective.

Calovius is omitted by Grantley in RGA.

Christian Adovcate (1825)
William Brownlee

Last edited:

Steven Avery

Calovius (the Elder.)
Dissertationes theologicæ Rostochienses, in quibus ... agitur de usu terminorum essentiæ&personæ ecclesiastico, in articulo de S.S. Trinitate, etc (1637)
Abraham Calovii

Biblia Novi Testamenti Illustrata: In Quibus Emphases vocum ac mens dictorum ... - VOLUME 1 (1676)

Latin text - TWOGIG uses the Cyril reference

Biblia Novi Testamenti illustrata: in quibus emphases vocum ac mens dictorum genuina è fontibus, contextu & analogia Scripturæ eruuntur .. (1719)
p. 1663-1669
Last edited:

Steven Avery

Inerrancy and Inspiration

Selected Writings of Arthur Carl Piepkorn, Volume 2
Edited and Introduced by Philip J. Secker
Foreword by Robert Kolb

Granville Sharp "rule"
Daniel Wallace
Wolfius on Calovius on Titus 2:13
British Critic (same)
Alexander Tilloch quotes British Critic

Francis Cheynell appeals to Calovius

The Divine Trinunity of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit ; Or the Blessed Doctrine of the Three Coessentiall Subsistents in the Eternall Godhead Without Any Confusion Or Divsion of the Distinct Subsistences, Or Multiplication of the Most Single and Entire Godhead . (1650)
Francis Cheynell



John Gill praise

A Collection of Sermons and Tracts ...: To which are Prefixed, Memoirs of the Life, Writing, and Character of the Author, Volume 3

Bengel from Burgess

Lunemann Dusterdieck (Meyer)


(5.) Some, by the "water" here, have understood the ordinance of baptism as it is appointed by the Saviour to be administered to his people, meaning that the ordinance was instituted by him. So Beza, Calvin, Piscator, Calovius, Wolf, Beausobre, Knapp, Lucke, and others understand it. According to this the meaning would be, that he appointed baptism by water as a symbol of the cleansing of the heart, and shed his blood to effect the ransom of man, and that thus it might be said that he "came by water and blood;" to wit, by these two things as effecting the salvation of men. But it seems improbable that the apostle should have grouped these things together in this way. For
(a.) the "blood" is that which he shed; which pertained to him personally; which he poured out for the redemption of man; and it is clear that, whatever is meant by the phrase "he came," his coming by "water" is to be understood in some sense similar to his coming by "blood;" and it seems incredible that the apostle should have joined a mere ordinance of religion in this way with the shedding of his blood, and placed them in this manner on an equality.

(b.) It cannot be supposed that John meant to attach so much importance to baptism as would be implied by this. The shedding of his blood was essential to the redemption of men; can it be supposed that the apostle meant to teach that baptism by water is equally necessary?

(c.) If this be understood of baptism, there is no natural connexion between that and the "blood" referred to; nothing by which the one would suggest the other; no reason why they should be united. If he had said that he "came" by the appointment of two ordinances for the edification of the church, "baptism and the supper," however singular such a statement might be in some respects, yet there would be a connexion, a reason why they should be suggested together. But why should baptism and the blood shed by the Saviour on the cross be grouped together as designating the principal things which characterized his coming into the world?
Last edited:

Steven Avery

● [Calovius]: Note on 1 John 5:7. This is adduced by Athanasius somewhere in the dispute held
with Arius or Arians at the Synod of Nicaea, and in book 1 to Theophilus De Unita Deitate
Trinitatis, as recorded in book 7 of Idacius Clarus around 380 AD. Book 3 Adversus Varimadus
Tom. IV. Bibl. Patr. again in the same century by Phaebadius in book 4 Contra Arianos chapter
45. By Cyril of Alexandria, De Recta in Deum Fide ad Reginas. In the fifth century by Victor
Vitensis in Africa Episcopo book 2... (Calovius, Biblia Illustrata; Translated by Jeroen
Beekhuizen, correspondence, June 2020)

Latin: Annotat Ad I. Johannis Cap. 5. v.7. Adductus est ab Athanasio in disp. in Synodo
Nicena habita cum Ario vel Ariano quopiam, & libr. I ad Theolophil. de unita Deitate
Trinitatis, ut & libr. VII. necnon ad Idacio Claro circa ann. Christi 380. libr. III. adversus
Varimondum Tom. IV. Bibl. Patr. itemque seculo eodem a Phaebadio libr. IV. contra
Arianos cap. 45. a Cyrillo Alexandino, de recta in Deum fide ad Reginas. Seculo
quinto a Victore Vicensi in Africa Episcopo libr. II... (Calovius, Biblia Illustrata, 1719, p.
1665 : Image 744. <reader.digitalesammlungen.

• [Burgess] Calovius, in his Biblia Illustrata [1719], quotes another work of Cyril (his treatise de recta in
Christum fide) for the seventh verse. Calovius speaks of it without reference. But, Peltanus (Acta Tertiae
Gen. Synod. 1576) in his version of Cyril's treatise, gives the Latin of the 7th verse. [Also: Jodocus Coccius
in Thesaurus Catholicus, 1599] (Burgess,”Note to P. XXVIII”in A Vindication of 1 John, V. 7. from the
Objections of M. Griesbach, 1823, 2nd edition, p. XL)

A Vindication



Last edited: