Expositio Fidei - 4th century confession discovered by Caspari

Steven Avery

4th century Greek witnesses

Research needed, seems be seen by Swainson, yet Caspari is given first credit?

Charles Forster had the - Greek - Brevis Expositio Fidei

sister threads

Marcellus Ancrya - 4th century quasi-Sabellian (possibly author of Exposito Fidei)

Expositio Fidei - 4th century confession discovered by Caspari

Caspari text - this book also has Germanus (Herculanus) text on p. 142

filius uero sine initio genitus a patre est, spiritus autem sanctus pro- cessit7) a patre et accipit de filio8), sicut euangelista testatur, quia scriptum est: Tres sunt, qui dicunt testimonium in cœlo: pater, uerbum et spiritus, et hœc tria unum sunt in Christo lesu. Non tamen dixit: unus est in Christo lesus)

Kirchenhistorische Anecdota: nebst neuen Ausgaben patristischer und kirchlich-mittelalterlicher Schriften, Volume 1
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Steven Avery

Expositio Fidei ad Cyrillum

Facebook - Pure Bible

One of the early clear evidences against the heavenly witnesses in the Greek mss is from Cyril of Alexandria. No surprise here, because we are talking about a writer in Alexandria after 400 AD.

Cyril of Alexandria, Five Tomes Against Nestorius. LFC 47 (1881) Book 5. pp.155-184.

Therefore the faith profits them who will hold it unshaken; how it profits, the all-wise John will assure us saying, Who is he that overcometh the world but he that believeth that Jesus is the Son of God? This is He that came through water and blood, Jesus Christ, not in water only, but in water and blood, and the Spirit is Truth; for three testify, the Spirit, the water and the Blood, and the Three are One.


Homily-style writings that omit the verse are rare. The BVDB censored forum (my fan club
) was having a problem finding this reference. ....

While we are with Cyril, I think I will mention a puzzle to be resolved. There is a work "Expositio Fidei ad Cyrillum" which has a strong allusion reference to the heavenly witnesses. This work is published with Jerome material and is ascribed to Marcus Celedensis.
Who is Cyril? Is it Cyril of Jerusalem? The timing is right. Cyril, though was a Greek writer.
In the early centuries many of the Latin writers were Greek-savvy, and thus their referencing the heavenly witnesses is a general evidence. This includes the Tertullian allusion and the Cyprian reference.

And much more

Steven Avery

Muratorian Fragment - Expositio fidei chatolic

The Muratorian Fragment and the Development of the Canon (1992)
Expositio fidei chatolice
Mark Hahneman Geoffrey

This leaves in the Codex only the short work ‘De Abraam’ and the fragmentary detached leaf ‘Expositio Fidei Chatolice’ as unidentified. Otherwise ail the works date from the fourth to fifth centuries, save possibly for the Muratorian Fragment. The majority of the works are clearly late fourth-century. It is of course quite possible, if the Fragment dates from the late second-century, that an earlier work was included with the several later ones. However, if other arguments suggest a later date for the Fragment, then its inclusion in this Codex among such later works could only be considered as corroborative, at least for the Latin version.
Grantley tries to suggest later dates, although he does humorously acknowledge the circularity of one such attempt by Karl Kunstle.

In Grantley, in the Dissertation, the Muratorian Fragment is p. 37-38 , matching Caspari p. 304-305

Steven Avery

Fides sancti Ambrosii episcopi - not in Grantley?

The Nicene and Apostles' Creeds: Their Literary History; Together with an Account of the Growth and Reception of the Sermon on the Faith Commonly Called "The Creed of St. Athanasius." (1875)
Charles Anthony Swainson
V.—There are two more professions in Quesnel’s Cod. Can. one, c. 37, which in Diss. xiv. § 5, he tells us is headed in one MS.
“Fides sancti Ambrosii episcopi,” and is as follows :

Expositio fidei catholicœ atque apostolicœ contra haeresim Arianam.

Nos Patrem, et Filium, et Spiritum sanctum confitemur, ita in Trinitate perfecta, ut et plenitudo sit Divinitatis, et unitas potestatis. Nam tres Deos dicit qui Divinitatem separat Trinitatis. Pater Deus, Filius Deus, Spiritus sanctus Deus, et tres unum sunt in Christo Jesu Tres itaque Persome, sed una potestas. Ergo diversitas plures facit ; unitas vero potestatis excludit numeri quantitatem : quia unitas numerus non est. Itaque unus Deus, una Fides, unum Baptisma. Si quis vero hanc fidem non habet, catholicus non jiotest dici, quia catholicam non tenet fidem ; alienus est, profanus est, et adversus veritatem rebellis.

Google translate
We Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, so perfect in the Trinity, that all the wealth and power unit. In fact, he says, who the Divinity of the separat of the Trinity are three Gods. Father, God the Son, and the Holy God, and the three are in Christ Jesus, so three persome, but one power. Therefore a difference it makes more; unit of power excludes a number of quantity because the unit number does not exist. And so, there is one God, one Faith, one Baptism. If any one has no faith in the truth of this, non-Catholic Christian jiotest said, because it does not hold the Catholic faith; He is not an atheist, and the truth away.

Steven Avery



Eusebius to Marcellum

Athanasius per Charles Forster

Exposition of the Orthodox Faith
John of Damascus



Expositio fidei catholiae

Expositio Fidei

Another complementary early reference is an exposition of faith published in 1883 by Carl Paul Caspari from the Ambrosian manuscript, which also contains the Muratorian (canon) fragment.

pater est Ingenitus, filius uero sine Initio genitus a patre est, spiritus autem sanctus processit a patre et accipit de filio, Sicut euangelista testatur quia scriptum est, "Tres sunt qui dicunt testimonium in caelo pater uerbum et spiritus:" et haec tria unum sunt in Christo lesu. Non tamen dixit "Unus est in Christo lesu."

Edgar Simmons Buchanan,[SUP][77][/SUP] points out that the reading "in Christo Iesu" is textually valuable, referencing 1 John 5:7.
The authorship is uncertain, however it is often placed around the same period as Priscillian. Karl Künstle saw the writing as anti-Priscillianist, which would have competing doctrinal positions utilizing the verse. Alan England Brooke[SUP][78][/SUP] notes the similarities of the Expositio with the Priscillian form, and the Priscillian form with the Leon Palimpsest. Theodor Zahn[SUP][79][/SUP] refers to the Expositio as "possibly contemporaneous" to Priscilian, "apparently taken from the proselyte Isaac (alias Ambrosiaster)".

John Chapman looked closely at these materials and the section in Liber Apologeticus around the Priscillian faith statement "Pater Deus, Filius, Deus, et Spiritus sanctus Deus ; haec unum sunt in Christo Iesu". Chapman saw an indication that Priscillian found himself bound to defend the comma by citing from the "Unity of the Church" Cyprian section.[SUP][80][/SUP]

77 The Codex Muratorianus, Journal of Theological Studies, 1907 pp.537–545
78 Alan England Brooke, A critical and exegetical commentary on the Johannine epistles, 1912, pp.158–159
79 Theodor Zahn, Introduction to the New Testament, Vol 3, 1909, p. 372
80 "It seems plain that the passage of St, Cyprian was lying open before the Priscillianist author of the Creed (Priscillian himself?) because he was accustomed to appeal to it in the same way. In Priscillian's day St. Cyprian had a unique position as the one great Western Doctor." John Chapman, Notes on the Early History of the Vulgate Gospels, 1908, p.264


Grantley - RGA - p. 37
The phrase unum sunt in Christo [lesu] subsequently occurs as a Trinitarian symbolum in two large-scale creeds. The first is the Reply to Pope Damasus, written in or before 384 (the year of Damasus’ death) by Priscillian or one of his followers.47 The second is the Expositio fidei chatolice, an orthodox creed written probably in Spain in the fifth or sixth century, in which this symbolum occurs as part of the wording of the Johannine comma.48

48 Expositio fidei chatolice, in Caspari, 1883, XIV, 305: “[...] pater est ingenitus, filius uero sine initio genitus a patre est, spiritus autem sanctus processet [procedit Caspari] a patre et accipit de filio sicut euangelista testatur, quia scriptum est: Tres sunt qui dicunt testimonium in caelo: pater, uerbum et spiritus, et hcec tria unum sunt in Christo lesu. Non tamen dixit: unus est in Christo lesu.” The Expositio is preserved in Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana ms I 101 sup., the same eighth-century manuscript that contains the Muratorian Canon. The date and provenance of the Expositio are disputed. Caspari, 1883, 304-308, the first editor of the document, suggested that it was written in Africa around the fifth or sixth century. Morin, 1899, 101-102, suggested less convincingly that it was written by Isaac Judaeus in the time of Pope Damasus (372). A more convincing explanation was offered by Kiinstle, 1905b, 89-99, who suggested that it was written in Spain in the fifth or sixth century against the position of Priscillian. In support of his contention that the Expositio is Spanish, Kiinstle noted that the same manuscript contains a Fides Athanasii, which is identical with the eighth chapter of the De Trinitate of ps.-Vigilius, and that the whole collection of documents in this manuscript is a suite of tracts belonging to the anti-Priscillianist movement. He concluded that Isaac cannot have written the Expositio, since he lived before the comma Johanneum is first attested, though this argument seems a little circular. Further on Morin’s hypotheses, see Lunn-Rockliffe, 2007, 33-62. It should be noted that the reading of the comma in Priscillian and in the Expositio is very similar to that later found in the biblical manuscripts Madrid, Complutense ms 31 and Le6n, Archivio catedralicio ms 6.

The Muratorian Fragment and the Development of the Canon (1992)
Expositio fidei chatolice
Mark Hahneman Geoffrey

“Fides sancti Ambrosii episcopi,"

Reply to Pope Damasus - Ad Damasum papam

RGA p. 37

The first is the Reply to Pope Damasus, written in or before 384 (the year of Damasus’ death) by Priscillian or one of his followers.47

47 Ad Damasum papam, cit. Kiinstle, 190Sb, 59:

“Pater deus, filius deus et spiritus sanctus deus. Haec unum sunt in Christo lesu. Tres itaque formae, sed una potestas.”

Kiinstle, 1905b, 67, contrasts this with the orthodox formulation in the creed Clemens Trinitas est una divinitas, also known as the “creed of St Augustine” (Southern France, fifth/sixth century; text given in Denzinger, 2001, 49-50, § 73-74). Although Clemens Trinitas does not contain the comma in its classical form, it contains the phrase tres unum sunt (here with the status of a symbolum) with an enumeration of the persons of the Trinity, creating an oddly ungrammatical sentence (Itaque Pater et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus, et tres unum sunt). In combination, these two elements are clearly moving towards the Johannine comma in its classical formulation.

See also the Canons of the Second Council of Braga, PL 84:582:

“LV. Quid in altari offerri oporteat. Non oportet aliquid aliud in sanctuario offerri praeter panem et vinum et aquam, quae in typo Christi benedicuntur, quia dum in cruce penderet de corpore eius sanguis effluxit et aqua. Haec tria unum sunt in Christo lesu, haec hostia et oblatio Dei in odorem suavitatis.”

This document, which was subsequently absorbed into the Decretum Gratiani, first appears in the forged ps.-Isidorean collection, put together in the ninth century; it is consequently difficult to know whether the formulation genuinely reflects the thought of the late fifth century. In any case it is fascinating that this phraseology occurs in combination with the three elements offlesh, blood
and water, which are found in Priscillian’s citation of 1 Jn 5:8. It is possible that the inclusion of this phrase in the Canons was suggested by the common interpretation of ljn 5:6 as a reference to the sacraments.

Explanatio Fidei Ad Cyrillum -