Sixtus Senensis

Steven Avery

Sixtus (1520-1569)

Sixtus of Siena (or Sixtus Senensis) (1520–1569) was a Jew who converted to Roman Catholicism, and became a Roman Catholic theologian. Though he was convicted of heresy he was saved by a Dominican inquisitor, the future Pope Pius V, who repealed the condemnation when Sixtus recanted and pledged to transfer to the Dominican Order instead. He is considered one of the two most outstanding Dominican scholars of his generation.[1] He had as a master Lancelotto Politi, some of whose writings he later publicly criticised.

[1] The other being Santes Pagnino (Benedict Ashley, History of the Dominican Order)
Not to be confused with Pope Sixtus V who later was involved in the Vulgate edition that was quickly supplanted by the Clementine, with Bellarmine having a major role in the shift.

Pagninus (1470-1541) was involved with the 1495 Vulgate edition that is mentioned by Porson in the question of Walafrid Strabo and the Prologue. Grantley mentions his 1527 Vulgate edition from Lyon as having the heavenly witnesses verse. So far, no other heavenly witnesses references.
He is also helpful on the right side of the Jehovah question.

Introduction to the Canonical Books of the Old Testament, Tr. by G.H. Box (1907)
Carl Heinrich Cornill

The "Bibliotheca Sancta” of Sixtus Senensis (f 1599), which first appeared in 1566, and was repeatedly reprinted and reissued down to the eighteenth century, can be described as an attempt in the direction of a history of Biblical literature, even though the larger part of its pages is still occupied with hermeneutical matter and the history of the interpretation.
Looks like an interesting paper:

Internationale Zeitschrift zur Erforschung der Reformation und ihrer Weltwirkungen - An international journal concerned with the history of the Reformation and its significance in world affairs

Sixtus of Siena and Roman Catholic Biblical Scholarship in the Reformation Period (1963)
John Warwick Montgomery
Gesenius compliments his work as an introduction to the Bible.

Essays and Dissertations in Biblical Literature: Containing Chiefly Translations of the Works of German Critics, Volume 1 (1820)
History of Introductions to the Scriptures, by William Gesenius; translated from the German, by Samuel II. Turner,

The kind of learning which I have been describing is, as has been remarked, the growth of the last century, and is indebted principally for its origin to the discussions of German Protestants on the various subjects connected with the Bible; and the name, as now usually applied, was first employed by J. G. Carpzov. A work in some respects similar to an introduction to the Bible was first given to the world by Augustin in his Doctrina Christiana, which, however, is rather hermeneutical advice in reading the Scriptures. This was followed in the sixth century by a production of Cassiodorus, who begins his directions for the study of theological literature with an account of the books of Scripture and their interpreters. In modem times Sixtus Sinensis first collected together the materials belonging to this subject in his Bibliolheca Sancta, § which remained an universally esteemed manual, until it was supplanted, at least among Protestants, by Walther's Officina Biblica, a pretty meagre production.||
For more on a summary of Biblical Interpretation luminaries, referencing Sixtus and others, we have an 1864 Cyclopaedia note by Karl August Credner:

In the heavenly witnesses debate, today Sixtus is mentioned mostly because of how Turretin references him in an appeal to Greek evidences. Turretin is mangled by contras, an area we look at elsewhere. A careful translation of the phrasing used by Sixtus will help in that controversy.

Sixtus of Siena (d. 1569) A Jewish convert, his exegesis was too progressive for many of cautious temperament. However, his intuitive Inquisitor repealed the condemnation when he recanted and pledged transferral to the Dominicans. Thus was a Franciscan scholar delivered by his judge, the future St. Pius V (Dominican). Sixtus assumed charge of reviewing Hebrew texts, preserving a heritage that others were not yet able to appreciate. The mandate of Trent to codify the scriptures was greatly advanced through his formulation of the terms: protocanonical, deuterocanonical and apocryphal.
Sixtus is also referenced by Richard Simon in discussing the ending of Mark, with Simon criticizing some comments from Sixtus, who apparently wanted to limit the context of the comments of Jerome.

Black, Crofton. “Eucherius of Lyon, Giovanni Pico della Mirandola and Sixtus of Siena: Early Christian Exegesis and Kabbalah in the Bibliotheca sancta (1566),” in Giovanni Pico e la cabbala, edited by Fabrizio Lelli (Firenze: Leo S. Olscbki Editore, 2014), pp. 231-258.

As referenced in:

The Study of Christian Cabala in English (2019)
Don Karr

Crofton Black and Don Karr are on
The main texts:

Bibliotheca Sancta
after 1069 pages comes two long Indexes.

Page reference from Grantley is p. 972 which is meant to answer the objections from p. 970:

Heretics answered

Also we have:

p. 31 - Higinus is referenced, first here (in the verse context)

p. 472 - mentiones Targum Onkelos and other resources from his Jewish background, do they connect to the verse?

p. 903 - Cajetan and Amborse

p. 970 - heretical objections - this includes mentioning Jerome's Vulgate Prologue

The later editions may not maintain all the material, here is a bit from a 1742 edition:

1742 -
footnote (Thomas Milante 1689-1749) Hyginus epistle , Cyprian's Unity of the Church and much more - p. 41 in the 1566 edition - Syriac edition

p. 970
main Grantley section.jpg

p. 972-3

Line 5 has Iginus Papa

there are a few posts that might be used by Turretin, have to check his wording
in codicibus graecis ecclesia
in omnibus Graecis exemplaribus --> Turretin

all the Greek copies have it [habent tamen omnia Exemplaria Graeca], as Sixtus Senensis acknowledges: "they have been the words of never-doubted truth, and contained in all the Greek copies from the very times of the apostles" [et in omnibus Graecis exemplaribus ab ipsis Apostolorum temporibus lecta] (Bibliotheca sancta [1575], 2:298).


This looks to be Volume 2, 1069 pages, plus indexes, no obvious heavenly witnesses references.

Bibliotheca Sancta
by Sisto (da Siena)

Steven Avery

Grantley on Sixtus

The Dominican Sixtus Senensis (1520-1569) quoted the letter attributed to Pope Hyginus as evidence that the comma was an original part of the text of Scripture, both in Greek and in Latin. He concluded triumphantly that this gave the lie to those who denied the originality of the passage, such as the Anabaptists and the followers of Servet.53

55 Senensis 1566, 972: cf. Bludau 1903a, 404-405.
Biblical Criticism p. 83

Senensis, Sixtus. Bibliotheca sancta. Venice: Franciscus Franciscius, 1566.
Biblical Criticism p. 366

A rather limited examination. :)

The heretical objections are on p. 970.

Jerome is on p. 972, special emphasis, so far, I see no special emphasis on Hyginus on p. 972 relating to the heresy issues, and the Greek mss. are on p. 973

Sixtus is important as one of the few 1500s writers that goes into the evidences, and decades before Bellarmine and Coccius. Also his tying in opposition to the verse to the 'heretics'.
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