Greek Writers, Θεὸς, "God" (List and references)


Additions and corrections will be made directly to this post. Some of the references are to the locations in the Greek

Allusions (Θεὸς, "God")​

  1. Ignatius (35-108) - Epistle to the Ephesians, 19.3 and Epistle to the Magnesians, 8.2
  2. Barnabas (70-131) - Barnabas, 12.10
  3. Mathetes (140) - Epistle to Diognetus, 11. As with many early commentaries, associating "God" in 1 Timothy 3:16 with the Word in John 1:1, 14. The context is clear that he has 1 Timothy 3:16 in mind.
  4. Clement of Alexandria (150-215) - Protrepticus (Exhortation), 10.110.1; 11.111.2; Stromata (Miscellanies),; Paedagogus, 3.1
  5. Hippolytus of Rome (170-235) - Contra Haeresim Noeti, 17; Commentary on Psalm 2; Commentary on Daniel 7:17
  6. Gregory Thaumaturgus (213-270) - Sectional Confession of Faith, 16, 18. The pairing of John 1:1, 14 and 1 Timothy 3:16 was common in early Christian apologetics.
  7. Athanasius (296-273) - De incarnatione Verbi, 1, 16, 46, 54.
  8. Gregory of Nazianzus (329-389) - Oration VII, 23; Oration XXXVIII, 13; De pace III (Or Oration 23); Oration XII, 5, 6
  9. Basil of Caesarea (330-379) - Epistle to the Sozopolitans, 1 (Epistolae 261.1).
  10. Asterius, Bishop of Amasea (400) - In his Fourth Oration delivered on the first of January, in the year 400, he writes, “We celebrate the birth of Christ, since at this time God manifested himself in the flesh.” (ἐν σαρκὶ θεοφάνια)
  11. Constitutions of the Holy Apostles (ca. 375) - 7.26, 8.1. There is no doubt as to the reading in 7.26.
  12. Euthalius (4th or 5th Century), Deacon of Alexandria, utilized the text of Pamphilius at the library at Caesarea and collated the manuscripts of Acts and the Epistles, dividing the books into lessons, chapters, and verses. For this place in first Timothy, the title of the chapter περὶ θέιας σαρκώσεως, “Concerning the Divine Incarnation,” and virtually every manuscript derived from this system exhibits Θεὸς ἐφανερώθη ἐν σαρκί. His colophon is still preserved in codex H (at the end of the Epistle to Titus): “I, Euthalius, wrote this volume of the Apostle Paul as carefully as possible in stichoi, so that it might be read with intelligence: the book was compared with the copy in the library at Caesarea, written by the hand of Pamphilius the saint.” Pamphilius of Caesarea was martyred in 309.
  13. Gelasius of Cyzicus(ca. 475) - Historia Concilii Nicaeni. The full context is necessary. "The Church of God, says he, has received the Holy and Apostolic faith, neither of men, nor by men, but from the God and Saviour of us all, Jesus Christ the Son of the living God, who (according to the dispensation of His coming in the flesh, a ‘great mystery of godliness’ as it is written) was manifest in the flesh [Φανερωθέις τε σαρκι]"
  14. Severus of Antioch (ca. 512) - Preserved in a catena: Τὸν νομοθέτην, τὸν ἐν σαρκὶ φανερωθέντα Θεόν, “The lawgiver, God, manifested in the flesh.”
  15. Maximus the Confessor (ca. 580-662) - Andrew Louth, Maximus the Confessor, pp. 86, 133; Disputation with Pyrrhus.

Quotations (Θεὸς, "God")​

  1. Dionysius of Alexandria (ca. 265) - Contra Paul of Samosata (Greek). Often confused with the interpolated Latin version.
  2. Marginal note in Athanasius' Fourth Epistle to Serapion. It's provenance is unknown.
  3. Apollinaris of Laodicea (ca. 310-390) - De Incarnatione Dei Verbi (Patrologia Graeca, vol. 28, col. 89 and 92)
  4. Didymus of Alexandria (fl. ca. 347) - De Trinitate, 27.52-54
  5. Gregory of Nyssa (ca. 335-384) - In at least 22 instances. Most notably in Against Eunomius, 5.3 and 10.2, commenting on how it (among other passages) were in all men's mouths and proclaimed by all who preach the word concerning the Deity of Christ.
  6. Diodorus of Tarsus (ca. 360) - Fragmenta in Epistulam ad Romanos, VIII.3, 4; Catanae Graecorum patrum in Novum Testamentum [1844], Tomus V, p. 124.
  7. John Chrysostom (ca. 349-407) - De beato Philogonio, 3 (48.753), Commentary on 1 Timothy 3:16, Homily on John 1:18
  8. Theodore of Mopsuestia (ca. 350-428) - Commentary on the Nicene Creed, c. 3 (in Syriac) from Theodore of Mopsuestia, On the Nicene Creed, ed. Alphonse Mingana [Cambridge: W. Heffer & Sons, 1932], pp. 35-37. The Latin translations of his commentary on 1 Timothy 3:16 seem dubious. Whereas we find qui or quod, his commentary notes this as a place where Paul "is seen to pass from words about the Deity over to the humanity." Thus the editors note that "…too much weight must not be attached in this instance to our translator’s testimony" (B. Swete, Theodori episcopi Mopsuesteni in epistolas B. Pauli commentarii, [University Press, Cambridge, 1880] p. 135)
  9. Cyril of Alexandria (ca. 376-444) - Explanatio xii. capitum or Duodecim Capitum Explanatio; De Recta Fide; Epistle to the Empresses Arcadia and Marina; De Incarnatione Domini, “Mai, Nov. PP. Bibliotheca, ii. 68.” Cited in Burgon, Revision Revised, p. 465; also in greater length in Bibliotheca Sacra, vol. 22, p. 22; Quod unus sit Christus; and an allusion in his 16th Paschal Homily
  10. Theodoret of Cyrus (393-460) - De incarnatione Domini; Eranistes, Dialogue I; Commentary on 1 Timothy 3:16
  11. Oecumenius (6th/7th century) - Commentary on 1 Timothy 3:16.
  12. John of Damascus (ca. 676-749) - Commentary on 1 Timothy 3:16.
  13. Theodorus Studita (ca. 759-826) - No less than 5 quotations in his Epistulae; Epistolarum, Book II, XXXVI; Quaestiones in Octateuchum
  14. Epiphanius, Deacon of Catania (787) - At the 2nd Nicene Council. Preserved in Greek and Latin.
  15. Photius (ca. 810-893) - Commentary on 1 Timothy 3:16
  16. Theophylact (1055-1107) - Commentary on 1 Timothy 3:16.
  17. Euthymius of Zigabenus (ca. 1116) - Panoplia Dogmatike Alexiu Basileos Tu Komenu, [1710], folio ρκγ́, p. 2, col.1, second paragraph.
  18. Laurentius Valla (1440) - Henderson, p. 65, quoting History of the Interpretaton of Scripture, Vol. I, p. 155.
  19. John Calvin (1509-1564) - Commenting on the Vulgate translation, notes that "All the Greek copies undoubtedly agree in this rendering, ‘God manifested in the flesh.’”
  20. John Pearson (1659) - Notes that “the name of God is expressed in all the copies of the original language” and moreover that ὃς in his day was not found “in any copy.” An Exposition of the Creed, 1st Edition (1659), pp. 255, 257 (upper margin). (
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